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Семинар 3. Изобразительные и выразительные средства языка
Термины: изобразительные средства, выразительные средства, метонимия, метафора, персонификация, синекдоха, ирония, зевгма, каламбур, эпитет, оксюморон, сравнение, перифраза, эвфемизм, гипербола, аллюзия
Вопросы к семинару:

  1. Как в языке возникают наглядность и образность?

  2. Дайте понятие сравнения и раскройте механизм его реализации. Приведите примеры сравнений.

  3. Что такое эпитет? Назовите основные виды эпитетов. Приведите примеры.

  4. Какие средства фигуральной образности Вам известны? Расскажите о фигурах качества и фигурах отношений.

  5. Дайте понятие метафоры и раскройте механизм её реализации. Приведите примеры метафор. Что может послужить в качестве источника метафоры?

  6. Дайте понятие метонимии и раскройте механизм её реализации. Приведите примеры метонимии. Назовите основание для метонимического переноса.

  7. Что такое количественные тропы?

  8. Какие фигуры противоположности Вы знаете? Каковы механизмы построения антитезы? Смешением каких стилистических приемов является хиазм?

  9. Какие средства создания комического эффекта Вам известны? Приведите примеры.

  10. Какие синтаксические стилистические средства Вы знаете?


Литература:

  1. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика: Современный английский язык: учебник для вузов. – М.: Флинта: Наука, 2010.

  2. Г.А. Худоногова. О соотношении понятий “стилистический прием”, “стилистическая фигура”, “стилистическое средство”. http://library.krasu.ru/ft/ft/_articles/0070491.pdf


Практические задания по английскому языку:

  1. Проанализируйте примеры метафор с точки зрения семантики, оригинальности, выразительности и яркости создаваемого образа.

  1. And the skirts! What a sight were those skirts! They were nothing but vast decorated pyramids; on the summit of each was stuck the upper half of a princess.

  2. His voice was a dagger of corroded brass.

  3. He felt the first watery eggs of sweat moistening the palms of his hands.

  4. At the last moment before the windy collapse of the day, I myself took the road down.

  5. He smelled the ever-beautiful smell of coffee imprisoned in the can.

6.We talked and talked and talked, easily, sympathetically, wedding her experience with my articulation.

7.Geneva, mother of the Red Cross, hostess of humanitarian congresses for the civilizing of warfare!

8.She and the kids have filled his sister's house and their welcome is wearing thinner and thinner.

9.She was handsome in a rather leonine way. Where this girl was a lioness, the other was a panther - lithe and quick.

10.Leaving Daniel to his fate, she was conscious of joy springing in her heart.

11."We need you so much here. It's a dear old town, but it's a rough diamond, and we need you for the polishing, and we're ever so humble...".

12.They walked along, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate. (W.G.)

2. Определите основание для метонимического переноса в следующих предложениях.


  1. He went about her room, after his introduction, looking at her pictures, her bronzes and clays, asking after the creator of this, the painter of that, where a third thing came from. (Dr.)

  2. Except for a lack of youth, the guests had no common theme, they seemed strangers among strangers; indeed, each face, on entering, had straggled to conceal dismay at seeing others there. (T.C.)

  3. She saw around her, clustered about the white tables, multitudes of violently red lips, powdered cheeks, cold, hard eyes, self-possessed arrogant faces, and insolent bosoms. (A.B.)

  4. Dinah, a slim, fresh, pale eighteen, was pliant and yet fragile. (С. Н.)

  5. I crossed a high toll bridge and negotiated a no man's land and came to the place where the Stars and Stripes stood shoulder to shoulder with the Union Jack. (J. St.)



  1. Проанализируйте различные случаи игры слов, определите, какой прием использовался, механизм его создания и стилистический эффект.

1. After a while and a cake he crept nervously to the door of the parlour.

2. There are two things I look for in a man. A sympathetic character and full lips.

3. I believed all men were brothers; she thought all men were husbands. I gave the whole mess up. 

4. When I am dead, I hope it may be said:

"His sins were scarlet, but his books were read."

5."Someone at the door," he said, blinking.

"Some four, I should say by the sound," said Fili.


  1. Hooper laughed and said to Brody, "Do you mind if I give Ellen something?"

"What do you mean?" Brody said. He thought to himself, give her what? A kiss? A box of chocolates? A punch in the nose?

"A present. It's nothing, really."



  1. "There is only one brand of tobacco allowed here - "Three nuns". None today, none tomorrow, and none the day after." (Br. B.)




  1. Объясните, как в предложенных отрывках создается ирония.

When the war broke out she took down the signed photograph of the Kaiser and, with some solemnity, hung it in the men-servants' lavatory; it was her one combative action. (E.W.)

Several months ago a magazine named Playboy which concentrates editorially on girls, books, girls, art, girls, music, fashion, girls and girls, published an article about old-time science-fiction. (M.St.)

Apart from splits based on politics, racial, religious and ethnic backgrounds and specific personality differences, we're just one cohesive team. (D.U.)

A local busybody, unable to contain her curiosity any longer, asked an expectant mother point-blank whether she was going to have a baby. "Oh, goodness, no," the young woman said pleasantly. "I'm just carrying this for a friend." (P.G.W.)

Sonny Grosso was a worrier who looked for and frequently managed to find, the dark side of most situations. (P. M.)

Last time it was a nice, simple, European-style war. (I.Sh.)

He could walk and run, was full of exact knowledge about God, and entertained no doubt concerning the special partiality of a minor deity called Jesus towards himself. (A.B.)
He spent two years in prison, making a number of valuable contacts among other upstanding embezzlers, frauds and confidence men whilst inside. (An.C.)
Exercise VII. In the following examples concentrate on cases of hyperbole and understatement. Pay attention to their originality or stateness, to other SDs promoting their effect, to exact words containing the foregrounded emotive meaning:

1. I was scared to death when he entered the room. (S.)

2. The girls were dressed to kill. (J.Br.)

3. Newspapers are the organs of individual men who have jockeyed themselves to be party leaders, in countries where a new party is born every hour over a glass of beer in the nearest cafe. (J.R.)

The car which picked me up on that particular guilty evening was a Cadillac limousine about seventy-three blocks long. (J.B.)

7. Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old. (Sc.F.)

The little woman, for she was of pocket size, crossed her hands solemnly on her middle. (G.)

She wore a pink hat, the size of a button. (J.R.)



She was a sparrow of a woman. (Ph. L.)

The rain had thickened, fish could have swum through the air. (T.C.)