Контрольная работа №2 по английскому языку для студентов I курса (группы 123, 124) Изучите следующие разделы грамматики - shikardos.ru o_O
Главная
Поиск по ключевым словам:
страница 1
Похожие работы
Название работы Кол-во страниц Размер
Контрольная работа №2 по английскому языку ( IX класс) Инструкция... 1 91.82kb.
Контрольная работа №2 по английскому языку 11 класс Инструкция по... 1 102.79kb.
Контрольная работа №4 по русскому языку для студентов-заочников 2... 1 38.71kb.
Контрольная работа №2 по французскому языку для студентов II курса... 1 110.18kb.
Контрольная работа по английскому языку в 9-ом классе 1 59.69kb.
Контрольная работа по английскому языку в 7 классе итоговая контронтрольная... 1 22.81kb.
Контрольная работа по английскому языку для 9 класса Часть А 1 33.82kb.
Контрольная работа №2 по современному русскому литературному языку... 1 66.39kb.
Контрольная работа по английскому языку, 4 класс 1 32.81kb.
Вариант 1 Задание Образуйте и напишите следующие существительные... 1 88.71kb.
Тематическое планирование по английскому языку в 8 классе 3 ч в неделю... 1 120.6kb.
Программа дисциплины «Ценообразование» 1 161.51kb.
- 4 1234.94kb.
Контрольная работа №2 по английскому языку для студентов I курса (группы 123, 124) - страница №1/1

Контрольная работа №2 по английскому языку

для студентов I курса (группы 123, 124)


  1. Изучите следующие разделы грамматики:

  1. Страдательный залог;

  2. Неличные формы глагола (инфинитив).

  1. Письменно выполните данные грамматические упражнения.

  2. Прочтите и письменно переведите текст, выполните задания к нему.

1 вариант

  1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, сказуемые которых стоят в разных формах страдательного залога. Выпишите сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму.

  1. The science of economics is based upon the facts of our everyday lives.

  2. This economical article has been typed recently.

  3. He had been offered a very interesting work by that time.

  4. Many buildings are being built in various parts of our country now.




  1. Преобразуйте предложения из действительного залога в страдательный.

  1. Large distances separate planets.

  2. Primitive man made his tools mostly of stone and wood.

  3. Modern transport and communication systems have brought the peoples of the world together.

  4. This will probably dissolve both, social and physical differences in time.




  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, укажите форму и функцию инфинитива. Помните, что инфинитив может выполнять функцию подлежащего, составной части сказуемого, дополнения, определения и обстоятельства.




  1. To study two foreign languages simultaneously is not easy.

  2. The problem to be solved by economist is of great importance.

  3. To master a foreign language one must work hard.

  4. They are said to have been conducting negotiations for a long time.

  5. Man’s ability to speak and develop language allows him to share knowledge with other men.



  1. Прочтите и письменно переведите следующий текст:


Utility and Prices.

Our basic needs are simple, but our additional individual wants are often very complex. Commodities of different kinds satisfy our wants in different ways.

This characteristic of satisfying a want is known in economics as its “utility”. Utility, however, should not be confused with usefulness. Economists say that utility determines “the relationship between a consumer and a commodity”.

Utility varies between different people and between different nations. Utility varies not only in relations to individual tastes and to geography, but also in relation to time. Utility is therefore related to our decisions about priorities in production – particularly in a centrally – planed economy. The utility of a commodity is also related to the quantity which is available to the consumer. We can say that the utility of a commodity therefore decreases as the consumer’s stock of that commodity increases.

In most economic systems, the prices of the majority of goods services do not change over the short periods of time. In some systems it is of course possible for an individual to bargain over prices, because they are not fixed in advance. In general terms, however, the individual cannot change the prices of the commodities he wants. When planning his expenditure, he must therefore accept these prices. He must also pay this same fixed price no matter how many units he buys. A consumer will go on buying bananas for as long as he continues to be satisfied. If he buys more, he shows that his satisfaction is still greater than his dislike of losing money. With each successive purchase, however, his satisfaction compensates less for the loss of money.

A point in time comes when the financial sacrifice is greater than the satisfaction of eating bananas. The consumer will therefore stop buying bananas at the current price. The bananas are unchanged; they are no better or worse than before. Their marginal utility to the consumer has, therefore, changed. If the price had been higher, he might have bought fewer bananas; if the price had been lower, he might have bought more.



It is clear from this argument that the nature of a commodity remains the same, but its utility changes. This change indicates that a special relationship exists between goods and services on the one hand, and a consumer and his money on the other hand. The consumer’s desire for a commodity tends to diminish as he buys units of that commodity. Economists call this tendency the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility.
Пояснения к тексту:

  1. utility and prices – полезность и ценообразование

  2. to satisfy our wants – удовлетворять наши потребности

  3. marginal utility – предельная полезность

  4. no matter – не имеет значения




  1. Какое из данных утверждений соответствует содержанию текста. Переведите его.

  1. Our basic needs are complex.

  2. Usefulness should not be confused with utility.

  3. Our wants are satisfied in much the same way by all commodities.




  1. Из 6 абзаца текста выпишите 1 предложение с герундием и переведите его.




  1. Из 4 абзаца текста выпишите 1 предложение в страдательном залоге. Определите время и переведите его.



Контрольная работа №2 по английскому языку

для студентов I курса (группы 123, 124)


  1. Изучите следующие разделы грамматики:

  1. Страдательный залог;

  2. Неличные формы глагола (инфинитив).

  1. Письменно выполните данные грамматические упражнения.

  2. Прочтите и письменно переведите текст, выполните задания к нему.


2 вариант


  1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, сказуемое которых стоит в разных формах страдательного залога. Выпишите сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму.

  1. They were delivered the interesting lecture on Economics last week.

  2. Under capitalism the prices of goods and services are related to supply and demand.

  3. The Ostankino television tower had been completed by 1970.

  4. The tests were being carried out well at the lesson yesterday.




  1. Преобразуйте предложения из действительного залога в страдательный.

  1. Some colleges have included lectures on nature conservation in their curriculum.

  2. More and more higher schools apply linguaphone equipment and television in the teaching process.

  3. Environment ignorance is aggravating the conflict between man and nature.

  4. Scientists’ recommendations encouraged students to take an active part in nature protection.




  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, укажите форму и функцию инфинитива.

  1. To study this phenomenon requires much knowledge.

  2. I want to be informed of the results in time.

  3. This student will be the first to answer the economic question.

  4. Most people work to earn a living, and produce goods and services.

  5. He was very glad to have employed foreign reporters for his magazine.


  1. Прочтите и письменно переведите следующий текст:

Supply and Demand.

Bananas are typical example of perishable goods. By “perishable” we mean goods which cannot be stored for any length of time without going bad. Most foodstuffs are in the perishable category. Such goods are offered for sale as quickly as possible, and so the supply of perishables and the stock of perishables available at any time are usually the same in quantity.

This is not true in the case of non-perishable goods like coal, steel and cars, which do not deteriorate easily. The supply of cars on the market may not be the same as the actual stock of cars in the factories. Economists talk about the Law of Supply, in which a rise in prices tends to increase supply, while a fall in prices tends to reduce it. If prices rise for a particular commodity, the rise will of course encourage producers to make more. On the other hand, if prices fall either locally or throughout the world, producers will reduce production. This can result in serious difficulties for many producers, and may cause them to go out of business completely. Over-production of any commodity can also create difficulties, because it can lead to a glut on the market, which may cause prices to fall sharply.

Supplies of many commodities can generally be adjusted to suit market conditions. This means that changes in prices lead to changes in the quantity of a particular commodity which is made available to consumers. Household goods and furniture belong to this category. In such instances supply is said to be “elastic”, because it can be increased or decreased rapidly in response to market prices.

Elasticity of supply, as a response to changes in price, is related to demand. Economists define “demand” as a consumer’s desire or want, together with his willingness to pay for what he wants. We can say that demand is indicated by our willingness to offer money for particular goods or services. Money has no value in itself, but serves as a means of exchange between commodities which do have a value to us.

People very seldom have everything they want. Usually we have to decide carefully how we spend our income. When we exercise our choice, we do so according to our personal scale of preferences. In this scale of preferences essential commodities come first (food, clothing, etc.), then the kind of luxuries which help us to be comfortable (telephone, special furniture, insurance, etc.), and finally those non-essentials which give us personal pleasure (holidays, parties, chocolates, etc.). They may all seem important, but their true importance can be measured by deciding which we are prepared to live without. Our decisions indicate our scale of preferences and therefore our priorities.

Elasticity of demand is a measure of the change in the quantity of a good, in response to demand. The change in demand results from a change in price. Demand is unelastic when a good is regarded as a basic necessity, but particularly elastic for non-essential commodities. Accordingly, we buy basic necessities even if the prices rise steeply, we buy other things only when they are relatively cheap.
Пояснения к тексту:


  1. supply and demand – спрос и предложение

  2. to suit market conditions – удовлетворять потребности рынка




  1. Из 1 абзаца текста выпишите 1 предложение с герундием и переведите его.




  1. Из 4 абзаца текста выпишите 2 предложения в страдательном залоге. Определите время и переведите их.




  1. Какое из данных утверждений соответствует содержанию текста. Переведите его

  1. According to the law of supply, a rise in prices tends to reduce supply.

  2. When there is a glut on the market, demand decreases and prices fall.

  3. Supply must not be “elastic” because market prices rise and fall.


Контрольная работа №2 по английскому языку

для студентов I курса (группы 121, 122, 125)
Прочтите и письменно переведите текст, письменно выполните задания к нему.


Metals

Metals are materials most widely used in industry because of their properties. The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy.

The separation between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are dense. The atoms are arranged regularly and can slide over each other. That is why metals are malleable (can be formed and bent without fracture) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.

The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of the metals depend on the size, shape, orientation and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.

Heat treatment such as quenching, tempering, or annealing controls the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легирование) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.

All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some require hot-working. Metals are subject to metal fatigue and to creep (the slow increase in length under stress) causing deformation and failure. Both effects are taken into account by engineers when designing, for example, airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical processes. Metals can be worked using machine-tools such as lathe, milling machine, shaper and grinder.



The ways of working a metal depend on its properties. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds, but special conditions are required for metals that react with air.
Vocabulary:

property — свойство

to slide — скользить

malleable — ковкий, податливый, способный деформироваться

bent pp of bend — гнуть

to fracture — ломать

ductile — эластичный, ковкий

to draw — волочить, тянуть

wire — проволока

grain — зерно

coarse — грубый, крупный

treatment — обработка

quenching — закалка

tempering — отпуск после закалки, нормализация

annealing — отжиг, отпуск

rolling — прокатка

to hammer — ковать (напр. молотом)

extrusion — экструзия

metal fatigue — усталость металла

creep — ползучесть

stress — давление,

failure — повреждение, разрушение

vessel — сосуд, котел, судно

lathe — токарный станок

milling machine — фрезерный станок

shaper — строгальный станок

grinder — шлифовальный станок

to melt — плавить, плавиться расплавить

to cast — отливать, отлить

mould — форма (для отливки)
Answer the questions:

  1. What are metals and what do we called metallurgy?

  2. Why are most metals dense?

  3. Why are metals malleable?

  4. What is malleability?

  5. What are grains?

  6. What is alloying?

  7. What is crystalline structure?

  8. What do the properties of metals depend on?

  9. What changes the size of grains in metals?

  10. What are the main processes of metal forming?

  11. How are metals worked?

  12. What is creeping?

Exercise1. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

  1. Свойства металлов

  2. Расстояние между атомами

  3. Правильное расположение

  4. Сильно отличаются по своим свойствам

  5. Кристаллическая структура

  6. Размер зерен

  7. Форма зерен

  8. Закалка

  9. Отжиг

  10. Волочение

  11. Прокатка

  12. Ковка

  13. Экструзия

  14. Структура и свойства зерна

  15. Горячая обработка

  16. Усталость металла

  17. Ползучесть металла

  18. Плавка и отливка в формы

  19. Способы обработки металлов

Exercise2: Complete the following sentences:

  1. Metals are…

  2. Metallurgy is…

  3. Most metals are…

  4. The regular arrangement of atoms in metals…

  5. Irregular crystals…

  6. The properties of the metals depend…

  7. Metals with small grains will be…

  8. …controls the nature of the grains in the metal.

  9. Alloying is…

  10. All metals can be formed by…

  11. Creep is…

  12. Metals can be worked using…

Exercise3: Translate into English:

  1. Металлы – плотные материалы потому, что между атомами в металлах малое расстояние.

  2. Металлы имеют кристаллическую структуру из-за правильного расположения атомов.

  3. Чем меньше зерна, тем тверже металл.

  4. Закалка и отжиг изменяют форму и размер зерен в металлах.

  5. Легирование изменяет структуру зерен и свойства металлов.

  6. Металл деформируется и разрушается из-за усталости и ползучести.