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СЛУЧАИ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ ОПРЕДЕЛЕННОГО АРТИКЛЯ THE

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СЛУЧАЙ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ

ПРИМЕР

1

Если говорится о единственном в мире предмете

The sun is in the sky.

Солнце находится на небе.

2

Когда говорится о предмете (или лице), единственном в данной обстановке

The teacher is in the classroom.

Учитель в классе. (В данном классе находится только один учитель)

3

Когда о данном предмете уже упоминалось в разговоре или повествовании

"I’ve got a very interesting book," says Mike.

"Please show me the book," says Nick.



«У меня есть интересная книга», — говорит Майк.

«Покажи мне, пожалуйста, эту книгу», — говорит Ник.

4

С существительным, перед которым стоит порядковое числительное

We are on the fourth floor.

Мы на пятом этаже.

5

С существительным, перед которым стоит прилагательное в превосходной степени

He is the best student in our group.

Он лучший студент в нашей группе.

6

Если говорится об определенном количестве вещества, например tea чай, milk молоко, bread хлеб и т. п.

Is the milk on the table?

Молоко на столе?

7

Перед названиями морей, горных массивов, островов, рек, пустынь, кораблей, гостиниц, кинотеатров, театров; перед словами country за городом, sea море, seaside у моря, mountains горы (и при обобщении)

I’m taking a trip to the mountains next week.

На следующей неделе я еду в горы.
Did you go to the Black Sea or to the Volga?

Вы ездили на Черное море или на Волгу?

8

Перед существительным в единственном числе, обозначающим целый класс предметов, людей (т. е. при обобщении)

The whale is a mammal, not a fish.

Кит — это млекопитающее, а не рыба.


9

После слов one of один (из), some of некоторые (из), many of многие (из), each of каждый (из), most of большинство (из) (часто после слов all все, both of оба)

Most of the stories are very interesting.

Большинство рассказов очень интересны.
Give me one of the books.
Дайте мне одну из (этих) книг.

10

Перед названиями четырех сторон света

the Northern part of our country —

север нашей страны

11

Перед фамилией во множественном числе (при обозначении всех членов семьи)

The Petrovs are at home.

Петровы дома.



СЛУЧАИ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОГО АРТИКЛЯ A/AN

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СЛУЧАЙ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ

ПРИМЕР

1

При упоминании чего-либо впервые

A man came up to a policeman.

Человек подошел к полицейскому.

2

При обобщении

A baby deer can stand as soon as it is born.

Оленята могут стоять на ногах сразу после рождения.

3

При обозначении неопределенного количества конкретного предмета

Pass me a piece of bread.

Передайте мне (немного) хлеба.

4

Перед названиями профессий или должностей

He is a doctor.

Он врач.


5

В значении один перед исчисляемыми существительными, обозначающими время

Will you be back in an hour?

Вы вернетесь через час?

6

Перед исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе, определяемыми словами such, quite, rather, most (в значении очень)

He is quite a young man.

Он совсем еще молодой человек.
It is a most interesting book.

Это очень интересная книга.

N.B.

Артикль an употребляется тогда, когда следующее за ним слово начинается с гласного звука: an old woman старуха, an honest man честный человек.



ОТСУТСТВИЕ АРТИКЛЯ

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СЛУЧАЙ

ПРИМЕР

1

Перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе (в тех случаях, когда в единственном числе следует употребить неопределенный артикль)

My father and my uncle are doctors.

Мой отец и мой дядя врачи.

2

При обобщении (обычно используется множественное число или неисчисляемое существительное без артикля)

Carrots are my favourite vegetable.

Морковь — мой любимый овощ.

3

В выражениях с собственным существительным в притяжательном падеже

John’s coat

пальто Джона

4

Перед существительным в функции определения

guitar lessons

уроки игры на гитаре

5

Перед названиями континентов, стран, штатов, городов, улиц, озер

I’ve been neither to South Africa nor to North America.
Я не был ни в Южной Африке, ни в Северной Америке.

6

Перед неисчисляемыми (абстрактными) существительными

This is important information.

Это важная информация.
I need advice.
Мне нужен совет.

7

В некоторых сочетаниях существительного с предлогом, когда все сочетание имеет характер наречия. to / at / from school, university, college; to / in / into / from church; in time; at / from home; by car, bus, bicycle, plane, train, metro, boat etc.; for breakfast и т. д.

You can get there in time if you go by train.

Вы можете добраться туда вовремя, если поедете поездом.

8

Перед именами и фамилиями людей

My name is Bond, James Bond.

Меня зовут Бонд, Джеймс Бонд.

Exercises

  1. Fill in a, an, the or – (nothing).

It was (1) … strangest story and I shall never forget it. (2)… young man came by (3) … bus that meets (4) … 4.52 train. He had (5) … handbag and (6) … kind of hamper. He wouldn’t let anybody touch it, but carried it up to his bedroom himself. He carried it in (7) … front of him in his arms. Once he fell going up (8) … stairs and knocked his head badly, but he did not drop that (9) … hamper. I could see he was nervous and excited, but (10) … people very often are like that in (11) … hostels.

2. Fill in a, an, the or – (nothing).

There was some time ago in (1) … London (2) … very little and dirty antique shop. In its windows one could see many (3) … interesting things that had been brought from (4) … different countries. There was also, at (5) … moment (6) … story begins, (7) … crystal egg. And at that two (8) … people, who stood at (9) … shop-window, were looking. One of them was (10) … tall Englishman and (11) … other (12) … black-bearded young man of (13) … Eastern origin.

While they were there, Mr. Jonson, (14) … owner, came back into (15) … shop after his lunch. When he saw these men and (16) … object they were looking at, he became very sad and softly shut (17) … door. He was (18) … little man, with (19) … pale face and (20) … grey eyes; his (21) … hair was dirty and grey and he wore (22) … old blue coat and (23) … old silk hat. He was watching (24) … two men as they talked. (25) … Englishman put his hand into his (26) … trouser pocket and took out some (27) … money. Then they came into (28) … shop.

3. Fill in a, an, the or – (nothing).

Russia has (1) … severe environmental problems in many areas, particularly with (2) … nuclear contamination. Chelyabinsk, (3) … city in (4) … southern Ural Mountains, may be (5) … most radioactive place on (6) … Earth because of (7) … wastes and spills from its plutonium plant. Extremely (8) … high radiation continues to be detected throughout (9) … area following (10) 1989 Chernobyl reactor explosion. (11) … growth of (12) … industry threatens to pollute (13) … world’s deepest lake, (14) … giant (15) … Lake Baikal, which holds (16) … quarter of (17) … world’s fresh water. Russian (18) … heavy industries and mines, built without (19) … environmental controls, contribute to (20) … serious pollution of (21) … major rivers, urban air, and (22) … soil….



4. Fill in a, an, the or – (nothing).

  1. She spent the summer on … adventure holiday in the heart of Africa.

  2. Although it was deep night, he could find his way through … woods.

  3. I’m sure I’m doing … right thing.

  4. My office is on … third floor of … old building.

  5. A career in this field can be … hard work but it’s rewarding.

  6. … most trains start badly on cold mornings.

  7. Traffic jams are almost unavoidable in … morning rush hour.

  8. I had … sandwich in … school canteen for … lunch today.

  9. … company wants us to pay for … goods in … advance.

  10. Mary lives in … large town in … middle of London but she wants to live in … country.

  11. The Department of Linguistics at West Point is located on the west bank of … Hudson River, north of California.

  12. … Sahara, the world’s largest desert, extends over eight million square kilometers.

  13. … Pacific Ocean keeps … San Francisco cool.

  14. Can you go by … train from … Alps to … North Sea?

  15. The sales representative claims that their software is in … demand all over the world.

  16. I work in … call centre, which means I’m constantly on … phone.

  17. I met … old friend of mine by … chance while I was doing … shopping.

  18. When … holiday came to … end we decided we’d keep in … touch.

5. Fill in a, an, the or – (nothing).

Off all my friends, I like Ann (1)…. She has rather (2)… ordinary appearance, but I can never guess what should I expect from her (3) … next morning. Well, I think I should tell everything in (4)… right order. (5)… dark hair, (6)… deep brown eyes, (7)… red mouth, (8)… fair complexion – that is her appearance. Fantastically (9)… varying clothes (from (10)… odd old jeans to (11)… extravagant dresses). Plus (12)… fascinating cosmetics or absence of it – that is her appearance.

As (13)… child she wanted to be (14)… astronaut and would snap up (15)… opportunity to go into (16)… space for real. Now, being (17)… bit older, she spans her interests across (18) … sport, (19)… music and (20)… travel. She keeps her eye on (21)… state of (22) … lawn tennis in (23)… world. (24)… music plays (25)… important role in her life and she can name more (26) … contemporary pop groups than (27)… most of her friends…

6. Choose the correct variant.

I. …Smiths have a dog and a cat.

a) … b) The c) A

2. He knows how to work on … computer.

a) a b) an c) …

3. She was the first woman to swim across … English Channel.

a) a b) … c) the

4. Go down … Kingston Street and turn left into Oxford Street.

a) the b) a c) …

5. I don’t like milk in … tea.

a) … b) the с) а

6. At the end of… busy day, sleep is the best way to restore your energy.

a) the b) a c) …

7. We’ll go for a walk if … weather is fine.

a) a b) … c) the

8. Could you give me … information I asked for in my letter?

a) the b) … c) a

9. …war is a terrible thing.

a) The b) … с) А

10. I spent … very interesting holiday in England.

a) the b) a c) …

7. Fill in the correct article.

1. “Is this your ... friend?” — “No, it isn’t my ... friend, it is my sister”.

2. I have ... sister. My ... sister is ... teacher. My sister’s ... husband is ... pilot.

3. I have no ... car.

4. She has got ... terrible … headache.

5. They have ... dog and two ... cats.

6. My ... cousin says he is going to be ... manager one ... day.

7. Would you like ... apple?

8. This is ... tree. ... tree is green.

9. I can see three ... children. ... children are playing in … yard.

10. I have ... car. ... car is white. My ... friend has no ... car.

8. Fill in the articles in the proverbs if necessary.

1. … apple … day keeps … doctor away.

2. … appetite comes with eating.

3. … good beginning makes … good ending.

4. … bird in … hand is worth two in … bush.

5. Among … blind … one-eyed man is king.

6. … brevity is … soul of wit.

7. … cat has nine lives.

8. … charity begins at … home.

9. … clothes make … man.

10. … curiosity killed … cat.

9. Fill in a, an, the or – (nothing).

At... beginning of ... 19th century ... little boy was born in ... family of John Dickens, ... clerk at ... office in ... Portsmouth, and was named Charles. He had ... sister who was older than himself, arid there were several other children in ... family. When Charles was seven, he was sent to ... school. He was not... strong child. He did not like to play ... cricket or .. football and spent all his free time reading. In 1821 ... family went to ... London and little Charles left behind him ... happiest years of his childhood. His father was in ... money difficulties, and ... family became poorer and poorer. ... boy had to give up his studios. Mr. Dickens was put into ... debtors' prison. Little Charles learned to know all ., horrors and cruelty of ... large capitalist city. He had to go to work at... blacking factory. He worked there from ... morning till ... night. When his father came out of prison, Charles was sent to ... school for some time. Soon he got work as ... clerk. Then he learned ... stenography and became ... reporter; in Parliament. In 1836 at... age of 24 Charles Dick-1 en? published his first book. It was ... collection of ... stories. ... title of ... book was "Sketches by Boz." There were followed by "Pickwick Papers" and "Oliver Twist" and many other famous novels. Charles Dickens is one of ... greatest writers of ... 19th. century. His novels are now translated into most languages of ... world.



10. Fill in a, an, the or – (nothing).

1. Moving to____ United States was_____ most exciting thing I have ever done. I moved last year to_____ New York. New York is______ exciting city, full of______ adventure. In fact, I met_____ famous actor on _____ bus yesterday!

2. Today, I have_____ job interview at______ financial company. _____ Company has____ offices all over_____ world. I'm not sure that I have_______ skills to get hired. I hope so. _______ Company's office is on _____ Main Street. That's ______ same street my friend works on.

3. If I get hired, I could meet him after _____ work for drinks. That would be great. He's from _____ Scotland. He works 8 hours______ day, 5 days______ week.

4. I have two brothers. One, Greg, is still in _____ college, and_____ other, Mike, has already graduated. Mike is ______ kind of guy that is very serious.

5. I don't remember_____ last time I saw him. It may have been in______ August. He was wearing_____ red sweater. It matched his_____ red hair.

6. After______ dinner, I usually wash_______ dishes. My wife hates doing it. I waste a lot of______ water when I do it. That's bad for______ environment, I think.

7. We live near_____ sea.________ Most houses in this area are expensive.



11. Directions: Write the following paragraphs, inserting a, an, and the where needed.

1. I have horse of my own. I call her Pretty Girl. She is intelligent animal, but she is not thoroughbred horse. I could never enter her in race, even if I wanted to. But I do not want to. She is companion, for my own pleasure. I took her swimming day or two ago.

2. Horse knows when he is going to race. How does he know? His breakfast was scanty. (He is angry about that.) He does not have saddle on his back. He is being led, not ridden, to grandstand. He is led under grandstand into unusual, special stall. Horse is nervous. Sometimes he does not know what to do when starting gate flies open and track is before him. If he does not begin to run instantly, other horses are already ahead of him. During race, when he sees another horse just ahead of him, he will try to pass him. Sometimes jockey holds him back to save his energy for last stretch. Eventually horse gets to run as fast as he can. Exercise boy, watching owner's favorite jockey riding horse he has exercised day after day, says nothing. Secretly, he is planning for day when he will be jockey himself, and his horse will be first to cross finish line.

3. Most people have fewer hours to give to time-consuming activities of clubs than they used to have, but most people in small town belong to club or two. One of clubs is likely to be social and benevolent organization, such as Rotary or Elks. Business people are likely to belong, also to either Kiwanis Club or Lions. Such business people's organizations may meet as often as once a week in one of private dining rooms of town's leading hotel for lunch. They have good lunch, hear good program, and continue their fundraising program for worthy organization, such as local hospital.



12. A, an, the or – (nothing)?

  1. _____diplomat is _______person who can tell you to go to hell in such a way that you actually look forward to_____ trip.

  2. _____dog is _____only thing on earth that loves you more than you love yourself.

  3. _____Americans like ______fat books and _____thin women.

  4. _____accountant is _____man who is hired to explain that you didn’t make _____money you did.

  5. _____actor’s _____guy who, if you ain’t talking about him, ain’t listening.

  6. _____optimist is someone who thinks _____future is uncertain.

  7. _____death is _____nature’s way of telling you to slow down.

  8. _____diplomacy is the art of saying ‘nice doggie’ until you can find _____stone.

  9. _____equality is ____lie - _____women are better.

  10. _____birds do it; _____bees do it; even _____educated fleas do it. Let’s do it. Let’s fall in ____love.

  11. I always pass on _____good advice. It is ______only thing to do with it. It is never any use to oneself.

  12. I love acting. It is so much more real than ____life.

  13. Never put anything on _____paper, my boy, and never trust _____man with _____small black moustache.

  14. Nothing’s illegal if _____hundred businessmen decide to do it, and that’s true anywhere in _____world.

  15. Remember that as _____teenager you are at _____last stage in your life when you will be happy to hear that _____phone is for you.

  16. Save _____water, shower with _____friend.

  17. _____happiest time of anyone’s life is just after _____first divorce.

  18. Treat _____work of art like _____prince: let it speak to you first.

  19. When I was _____boy of fourteen, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have _____old man around. But when I got to be twenty-one, I was astonished at how much he had learned in seven years.

  20. When I was born, I was so surprised that I couldn’t talk for _____year and _____half.

  21. A banker is ______man who lends you ______umbrella when ______weather is fair, and takes it away from you when it rains.

  22. California is ______great place – if you happen to be ______orange.

  23. Writing about _____art is like dancing about _____architecture.



13. Translate the following sentences:

1. Этим утром я купил газету и журнал. Газета в моем портфеле, но я не знаю, куда я положил журнал.

2. На улице припаркованы две машины: синяя и серая. Синяя принадлежит моим соседям; я не знаю, кто владелец серой.

3. Мои друзья живут в старом доме в маленькой деревне. За домом - красивый сад. Я бы хотел такой сад.

4. – Где вы обедали? – Мы ходили в ресторан.

5. – Вы часто слушаете радио? – Нет. На самом деле у меня нет радио.

6. – Вы очень часто ходите в кино? - Нет, не очень часто. Но я смотрю много фильмов по телевизору.

7. – Что Вы ели на завтрак сегодня утром? – Ничего. Я никогда не завтракаю.

8. – Подскажите, пожалуйста, где 25 комната. – Она на втором этаже.

9. – Мы потратили все наши деньги, потому что мы остановились в самом дорогом отеле в городе. – Почему вы не остановились в более дешевом отеле?

10. Это был очень жаркий день. Он был самым жарким днем в году.

11. Солнце – это звезда.



12. Какая самая высокая гора в мире?