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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ВНУТРЕННИХ ДЕЛ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ


КРАСНОДАРСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

СТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИИ И США


Учебное пособие

по английскому языку

Краснодар

2007



81. 2 Англ.

У.91


Печатается по решению

редакционно-издательского совета

Краснодарского университета МВД России

Рецензенты: Тхорик Владимир Ильич,

доктор филологических наук, профессор

декан факультета романо-германской филологии,

Кубанский государственный университет;

Мятченко Ирина Васильевна,

кандидат филологических наук, доцент,

зав. Кафедрой русского и иностранного языков,

Краснодарский университет МВД России;


Составитель: Нетребко Елена Эдуардовна,

преподаватель кафедры русского и иностранных языков,

Краснодарский университет МВД России;
Учебное пособие по английскому языку «Страноведение Великобритании и США» » (географическое, экономическое положение, политический строй, население, государственное устройство, конституционное право) по специальностям 030501.65 – юриспруденция и 030505.65 – правоохранительная деятельность – Краснодар: Краснодарский университет МВД России - 179 с.
Учебное пособие написано в соответствии с государственным образовательным стандартом для курсантов, слушателей, студентов, обучающихся по специальностям 030501.65 – юриспруденция и 030505.65 – правоохранительная деятельность. Пособие может быть использовано как для аудиторных, так и внеаудиторных занятий.

Краснодарский университет МВД России, 2007


Данное учебное пособие «Страноведение Великобритании и США» (географическое, экономическое положение, политический строй, население, государственное устройство, конституционное право) является одним из циклов учебно-методических материалов, предназначенных для обучения английскому языку курсантов, слушателей, студентов, обучающихся по специальностям 030501.65 – юриспруденция и 030505.65 – правоохранительная деятельность, рассчитано на 56 часов практических занятий (II семестр, 1 и 2 факультет) в Краснодарском университете МВД России. Основная цель пособия – обеспечить практическое владение обучающихся всеми видами речевой деятельности по темам «Страноведение Великобритании и США».



Оглавление

Раздел I Базовые и дополнительные тексты по темам …………………………

5

Тема 4. Great Britain (географическое, экономическое положение, политический строй, население) ………………………

5

Тема 5a. State and Government of the UK ……………………………

29

Тема 5b. The British Constitution ………………………………………

50

Тема 6. The USA (географическое, экономическое положение, политический строй, население) …………………………

78

Тема 7a.The US System of Government ………………………………

84

Тема 7b. The Constitution of the USA and the Bill of Rights ……………

99

Раздел II Грамматика

108

Тема 4. Типы вопросительных предложений. ………………………

108

Суффиксы существительных, прилагательных и наречеий

113

Тема 5. Причастие I, II ……………………………………………….

57-58, 115

Времена группы Continuous......................................................

124

Модальные глаголы...................................................................

128

Тема 6. Времена группы Perfect………………………………………

147

Тема 7. Причастные обороты…………………………………………

168

Раздел III Вопросы к зачету (II семестр)

176



















Раздел I


Тема 4. Базовый текст.

GREAT BRITAIN
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British s. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometres.

The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals arc London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respec­tively. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech 'Great Britain' is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the UK is London.

The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountain­ous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and west of England arc mountainous, but all the rest — east, centre and south-cast — is a vast plain. Mountains are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343m).

There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one.

The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.

The UK is one of the world's smaller countries. Its population is over 57 million. About 80% of the population is urban.

The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.

The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is the Queen. In practice, the Queen reigns, but does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected govern­ment with the Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two cham­bers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties. The Labour party is the ruling party nowadays. The Prime Minister is Gordon Brown.


Names

The United [ju:'naitid] Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern [no:ðən] Ireland ['aiələnd] — Соединен­ное Королевство Великобритании и Север­ной Ирландии

the British Isles [ailz] — Британские острова

Edinburgh ['edinbərə] — Эдошбург

Cardiff ['ka:dif] — Кардифф

Belfast [bel'fa:st] — Белфаст

the North Sea — Северное море

the English Channel [t∫ænl] — Английский канал (принятое в Великобритании название про­лива Ла-Манш)

the Irish ['aiəri∫] Sea - Ирландское море

the Atlantic Ocean [ə'tlæntik 'ou∫n]— Атлантиче­ский океан

Highlands ['hailəndz] — гористая часть Lowlands ['louləndz] — низменная часть Ben Nevis [ben'nevis] — Бен Невис

the Severn ['sevən] — Северн

the Thames [temz] — Темза

Gulf Stream [gΛlfstri:m] — Гольфстрим

the House of Lords — палата лордов

the House of Commons — палата общин

the Labour ['leibə], the Conservative [kən'sə:vətiv] and the Liberal ['libərəl] parties — Лейборист­ская, Консервативная и Либеральная партии

Vocabulary

to be situated ['sitjueitid] — быть расположенным

to consist [kən'sist] of— состоять из

total area ['toutl 'εəriə] — общая площадь

kilometre ['kilə,mi:tə] — километр

respectively [ri'spektivli] —соответственно

to include [in'klu:d] — включать

to mean [mi:n] (meant, meant)— означать

to separate ['sepəreit] — разделять

to wash — омывать

surface ['sə:fis] — поверхность

to vary ['vεəri] — менять(ся), разнообразить

mountainous ['mauntinəs] — гористый

valley ['væli] — долина

vast [va:st] — огромный

plain — равнина

deep — глубокий

to influence ['influəns] — влиять

climate [klaimit] — климат

mild [maild] — мягкий, умеренный

the whole year round — круглый год

population — население

urban ['ə:bən] — городской

highly developed [di'veləpt] — высокоразвитый

producer [prə'dju:se] — производитель

exporter [ikspo:tə] — экспортер

machinery [mə'∫inəri] — машинное оборудова­ние

electronics [elik'troniks] — электроника

textile ['tekstail] — текстиль

aircraft ['εəkra:ft]— самолеты

navigation [nævi'gei∫n] — судоходство

equipment [i'kwipmənt] — оборудование

chief [t∫i:f] — главный, основной

shipbuilding — кораблестроение

constitutional monarchy [,konsti'tju:∫ənl 'monəki] — конституционная монархии

law [lo:] — закон

in law — по закону

the head of state — глава государства

queen [kwi:n] — королева

in practice ['præktis] — фактически, на практике

to reign [rein] — царствовать

to rule [ru:l] — править

to elect [i'lekt] — выбирать

government [gΛvənmənt] — правительство

Prime Minister — премьер министр

at the head — во главе

parliament ['pa:ləmənt] — парламент

chamber ['t∫eimbə] — палата

Questions

  1. The UK is an island state, isn't it? Where is it situated?

  2. What countries is the UK made of? What are their capitals?

  3. What channel separates the British Isles from the European continent?

  4. The surface of the British Isles varies very much, doesn't it?

  5. What is the north of Scotland called? What is the south of Scotland called?

  6. What's the highest mountain in Scotland?

  7. Are there a lot of long and deep rivers in Great Britain?

  8. Why is the climate of the British Isles mild?

  9. Is the UK a large country?

  10. What's the UK's population?

  11. The UK is a highly developed industrial country. What does it produce and export?

  12. The UK is a constitutional monarchy. What does it mean?


Дополнительные тексты для чтения темы 4 «Great Britain»

Текст 1

T
Britain — an anglicized form of Britannia, the Roman name for what is now England, Wales and Scotland. In the 4th century ВС the inhabitants were known as Pretannoi, and under the Roman occupation they were known as Brittanni.
he British Isles.



The name of Great Britain was first officially used in 1604, when James I was proclaimed 'King of Great Britain'. It had been used earlier by some writers, however, to distinguish Britain from Britannia Minor, or Brittany, in France.


The British Isles refers to the geographical group of islands from near the French coast to the far north near Iceland.

Great Britain refers to England, Wales and Scotland. It is the main island.

The United Kingdom is the administrative title and includes Great Britain and Norrhern Ireland.



Текст 2.

England


  1. Read the text about England and find out what special features different regions of England have.

Albion is an ancient and poetic name for England or Great Britain, perhaps from the white (Latin albus) cliffs of Dover, but possibly from Celtic alp, which means 'rock'.

England is often subdivided into three parts: the South, the Midlands and the North:

T
"This is blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. " William Shakespeare
he South. The landscape is varied.

The climate is warmer than in the other areas. There are hundreds of miles of sea coast which vary from flat, sandy or stony beaches to high rocky cliffs. The mild and sunny climate makes the south coast popular with holiday-makers. Some coastal resorts are famous, Brighton among them.

Somerset, Devon and Cornwall are rural counties, tucked away with hidden fishing hamlets and Britain's warmest weather in winter. There are high, bare hills, rock and deep wooded valleys Inland, the landscape is gentle and green; it is famous for its fertile farmland, the calm, tranquil and quiet beauty of its countryside. One of the most beautiful counties in the South of England is certainly Kent. It is known as the Garden of England, because it is famous for its picturesque orchards which produce a lot of fruit and vegetables.


"Our England Is a garden that Is full of stately views ... " Rudyard Kipling



Another area which has some of the richest farmland in the country is known as the Fens and lies to the east of Cambridge.

This land was drained and now the Fen Country consists of miles of flat land with almost no trees or hedges.

I
A fen is land which is

lowlying and wet, often

partly covered with water.
n general, the South is wealthier than other areas of Britain. Work of all kinds is provided on the land, trade and industry. British Aerospace has factories building aeroplanes in several parts of the South. Lots of people are involved in service industries including financial, business and government services, computer services and information systems. There are science-based companies and research organizations.

The Midlands. The Midlands Region has much farming land, but this part of the country is better known as an industrial area, one of England's most productive regions.

Birmingham which is often called the Big Heart of England, is the most important city of the Midlands. It is the second largest city in the United Kingdom. Birmingham and the neighbouring industrial city of Coventry are famous for engineering, especially car production.

Derby is another engineering centre. Rolls Royce make aero engines and cars there.

Rolls Royce a well-known firm founded in 1906 by Charles Stewart Rolls and Henry Royce, is the symbol all over the world of high quality automobile engineering.

The Potteries is another industrial area in the Midlands. It lies around the city of Stoke-on-Trent and produces china, crockery and all kinds of ceramics, some of which are famous worldwide, Wedgwood among them.


Wedgwood is a famous make of pottery and china. The most famous Wedgwood design has raised classical style decorations in white on a pale blue background, named after the potter Josiah Wedgwood (1730 - 95).

The West Midlands, another industrialized area where there are many collieries and steelworks, is known as the Black Country because of the black smoke and blackened buildings there.

In contrast, the Midlands region has some beautiful picturesque countryside in the Peak District with its National Park.

The North. The weather is considerably colder. There is almost always snow in winter.

This is a region of great natural beauty although industry of some kind h.is existed here for hundreds of years. There is a great contrast in the North between the beautiful open, hilly countryside and the industrial towns and mining villages.

In puts of the North — in Yorkshire particularly — title wooded valleys and green pastures and excellent farming land. West Yorkshire is very good country for sheep-farming, and it has long been Britain's most important area for the wool industry. Coal is one of the few natural resources found in the North of England. Some famous industrial cities in the North are Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds and Newcastle-on-Tyne.

What are England s most remarkable places?

Compare different parts of England.

Where, in your opinion, is most of England s population concentrated? Give your reasons.
Whitehall is a street in central London running from Trafalgar Square to the Houses of Parliament and containing many important buildings and government offices: the Foreign and Commonwealth Offices, the Treasury, Admiralty and Ministry of Defence. In the centre of the roadway stands the Cenotaph, the memorial to the fallen of both world wars. The Prime Minister's residence at No. 10 Downing Street is directly connected to Whitehall.

London is always full of life. The streets are crowded with traffic. High 'double-decker' buses rise above the smaller cars and vans.

The City of London today is the financial powerhouse of the country and one of the chief commercial centres of the western world.

The City has its own Lord Mayor, its own j government and its own police force. Here the medieval buildings stand side by side with modern steel and glass high-rise office blocks. The territory of the City of just I over one square mile contains several banks, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and offices of many financial companies.

The parks of London provide a welcome contrast to the great built-up areas. St. James's Park, Green Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens are linked together. They form 313 hectares of open parkland in the heart of London.


  1. Why is London called the least typical part of Britain while being the capital of the country?

  2. What makes the City of London a powerhouse of the country?

  3. Comment on the words "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life ".



  1. Read this information about some places of interest in England. Find out:

  • which of them have historic or literary associations;

  • which are noted for their outstanding beauty;

  • which are linked with the sea.

Stonehenge: a prehistoric complex on Salisbury Plain,Wiltshire, regarded as one of the most important monuments of its kind in Europe, and very popular with visitors. The great circle of standing stones is believed to have had some religious or astronomical purpose.

Windsor: a town on the Thames, not far from London. Its castle has been a royal residence for nine centuries. Seen from a distance it is beautiful beyond imagination. Windsor Castle has a long and fascinating history.

Some of the interior apartaments are open to the public when the Sovereign is not in residence.

Canterbury: an ancient city in Kent, with a majestic cathedral which dominates it. Canterbury is a religious capital of England. It was built in the 11th-15th centuries, and became a place of pilgrimage in medieval times after the murder of Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury.

Brighton: a popular seaside resort, famous for the architecture of the Royal Pavillion built in an oriental style. Brighton is known for its farge conference centre, where many important political and scientific meeting are held.

Portsmouth: a large city on the south coast particularly rich in associations with the Royal Navy. The flagship of Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar, Victory, still stands in the port and it ranks as one of Britain's greatest tourist attractions.

Portsmouth is the birthplace of Charles Dickens. The house where he spent his childhood is now a museum.


Текст 3.


Places to Visit in England.

London

Read the text about London and find out why it draws people from all over the world.




"When a man is tired of London,he is tired of Life; for there is in Condon all that life can afford." Samuel Johnson (1709-1784).
Today, more than 200 years later, Johnson's words still ring true. There are few places that offer such a variety of sights, entertainments, educational and business opportunities, world-famous museums and theatres, and superb shopping.

London draws people from all over the world. Some come on business, some come to study, to work or on holiday. London is naturally a very English city, yet it is the least typical of Britain as it is very cosmopolitan, containing goods, food and entertainment, as well as people, from many countries of the world.


"London: a nation, not a city. "Benjamin Disraeli
London spreads its influence over much of the southern areas of England; it gives work to millions of people who live not only in the inner-city areas but in surrounding districts. Some people even commute over 100 miles (over 150 km) every day to work in London.

There is much in London which fascinates visitors and inspires the affection of Londoners: the splendour of the royal palaces and the I louses of Parliament, the dignity of St. Paul's Cathedral and many monuments, the fine architecture of numerous historic buildings, and the beautiful parks.

London shows examples of buildings that express all the different areas of its history, it manages in a unique way to reflect its past and at the same time to fulfil the functions of a modern city with its commercialism and bustle.


The name Piccadilly stems from a 17th century dressmaker who lived in the area and created a frilled collar called a 'piccadir.
Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the Sovereign. The daily ceremony of the Changing of the Guards takes place in its courtyard. The palace was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham. Piccadilly Circus has become an important meeting point — for traffic as well as sightseers. At its heart is a bronze fountain topped by a figure of a winged archer, popularly known as Eros, the pagan god of love. The majority of London's places of entertainment arc concentrated around Piccadilly Circus. This area is now famous for its theatres, clubs and shops.


Текст 4.

Wales


  1. Read this information about Wales and find out:

  • how it is divided geographically;

  • how industries and agriculture are developing.


Croeso i Cymru Welcome to Wales

Wales – from old English Wealas, plural of wealh, ‘ foreigner’, applied to the Britons by the Anglo-Saxons. The Welsh name for their own lands is Cymru which means ‘friend’.

Wales is the most bordered on the east by England. It is the smallest land of the United Kingdom, but has considerable variety, from the picturesque mountains of the north to the mining and industrial areas of the south. The main areas of settlement are in the southern valleys and coastal areas, where two-thirds of the population live. The chief cities are Cardiff, Swansea and In 1955 Cardiff was declared the capital of Wales. Wales is a principality (a country ruled by a prince, or from which he takes his title). The title of 'Prince of Wales' is traditionally given by the British sovereign to his or her eldest son, who is heir to the throne. The earliest recorded bearer of the title was Edward II in the early 14th century. The present Prince of Wales is Prince Charles (born 1948) , eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II.

Wales is divided geographically into the industrial south, the central plateaux and lakes, and the mountainous north.


The Welsh Dragon

The exact origin of the Welsh Dragon is lost in the mists of time, and there is still much debate as to its source.

One of the earliest mentions of the Dragon dates to about 800 A.D. References to the Dragon frequently occur in Welsh medieval poetry, where the creature was used to symbolize the country.

The Red Dragon was recognized as the Badge of Wales in 1901, at which time it was added to the Arms of the Prince of Wales.

In 1953, it was made the official Royal Badge of Wales, and after that it became the authorized Welsh National flag.
South Wales. The economy of Wales is based on coal, iron, and steel which are traditional industries in this part of the United Kingdom. The valleys to the north of Cardiff are the heart of the Welsh coal and steel industries.

South Wales remains the principal industrial area. Today Wales is developing as an important centre for electronics, and several new high technology businesses in electronics and related industries have been established.

Agriculture occupies about 80 per cent of the land area; the main activities are sheep and cattle rearing in the hill regions and dairy farming in the lowlands.

North Wales is famous for the wild beauty of its mountains, lakes and waterfalls. With its good coastal resorts, famous for their sandy beaches, and three national parks (Snowdonia, the Brecon Beacons and the Pembrokeshire Coast), as well as other areas of picturesque hill, lake and mountain country, Wales attracts tourists, especially for outdoor holidays.



Текст 5.

Places to Visit in Wales

Cardiff Castle: a building representing 1900 years of history. First it was a Roman fort. When the Normans arrived centuries later they built their castle on the site of the old Roman fort. The Castle was strengthened and improved over many years. Its colourful and lavish interiors continually surprise and delight visitors who enter a grim, fighting castle to find themselves surrounded by exquisite wood carving and sculpture, and frescoes that tell of the castle's long history.

Snowdonia: The Welsh call Snowdonia the 'Eagles' Nesting Place', and even though eagles no longer fly here the grandeur of the name is still appropriate for a region that is scenically one of the glories of Britain. The Snowdonia National Park is a region of wild mountains, high passes and craggy peaks. The valleys sparkle with woodfringed lakes and cascading waterfalls. At the centre of the range is Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales (1085m).

Dinorwig: the largest pumped-storage power station in Europe. It is built in the heart of a mountain to produce electricity by pumping water between two lakes. At all stages of the design and construction it was appreciated that the need to protect the exceptionally fine environment of the Snowdonia Park was of paramount importance. The project took ten years and it was let in 1975.

Ffestiniog Railway (established 23d May 1832 by Act of Parliament). This is a famous railway, with little steam trains which run from the coastline into the mountains. It climbs through tranquil pastures and forests, past lakes and waterfalls, round horseshoe bends and even round a complete spiral, sometimes clinging to the mountainside, sometimes tunneling through it.

The views from the windows of the train are magnificent over countryside set in the midst of the Snowdonia National Park.



Caernarfon: an ancient town with a magnificently preserved castle which dominates it. The son of Edward I, who became the first English Prince of Wales, was born there in 1284. In 1969 Prince Charles was invested there as Prince of Wales. Many episodes in the long history of revolt against English rule took place in the castle, and in the Civil War (1642-1646) it was one of Cromwell's strongholds.

  1. What do you think makes Wales a country interesting for visitors?

  2. What interesting facts about the Welsh Dragon have you found out? What other creatures are used to symbolize different countries?

  3. Who is traditionally given the title of 'Prince of Wales'? Do you think this title is important?




  1. Read this information about Scotland. Find out:

what its territory looks like;

what industries it is known for;

what climate it has;

what places are interesting to see.

Текст 6.

Scotland


Caledonia is the Roman name for Scotland but now used only in poetry.


T
"O Caledonia! stern and wild..." Sir Walter Scott
he ocean bounds Scotland on all sides except for its southern, sixty-mile-long border with England. Most of the country is within forty miles of salt water. On the west coast there are a lot of sea lochs and islands. Most of Scotland's 787 islands are off the northwest coast.

The country may be divided into the Highlands and the Lowlands. However, not all of the Lowlands are really 'low'.

T
The scenery is beautiful here, so wild and grand — ... I wish an artist had been there to sketch the scene; it was so picturesque — the boat, the nets, and the people in their kilts in the water and on the Shore." from Queen Victoria's diary
he highest peak in the Highlands and in all Britain is Ben Nevis (4406 feet = 1343 m) with its head in cloud and snow towering above the little town of Fort William.

No month has an average temperature below freezing. During the winter months there is usually sufficient snow for skiing. The east coast is drier than the west, where even in summer rainstorms and showers are frequent.

Scotland is famous the world over as a land of beautiful scenery — of hills and valleys, of misty lochs and tumbling rivers, unspoilt beaches and charming fishing villages.

Fishing remains an important activity in Scotland. More than half of the total landings of fish in Britain are made at Scottish ports.

Scotland has about one-third of Britain's total agricultural land, but 71 per cent consists of hill grazing for cattle and sheep. But modern Scotland is also a land of steel and ships, coal and iron. Some of the traditional Scottish industries, such as coal, steel and shipbuilding, are declining. Other traditional manufactures, such as high quality tweeds and other textiles, and food and drink products, remain important. Much is being done to modernize Scotland industry. The electronics sector has greatly contributed to the country's development.

Edinburgh has been the capital of Scotland since 1437. It is an impressive city, situated in one of the most beautiful settings in the world, between the hills and the sea. It is a city of classical architecture and spectacular views, a place of many historic and literary associations.



Текст 7.

Places to Visit in Scotland

Edinburgh Castle stands high on the massive grey Castle Rock. The oldest part of the building dates back to about 1100. In the Castle are the Honours of Scotland — the Scottish Crown, scepter and sword of state, the oldest royal regalia in Europe. The imposing Great Hall is still used for banquets and has one of the finest hammerbeam ceilings in Britain.

The Palace of Holyrood is the official residence of the Queen when she is in Scotland. It is one of the most interesting places in Edinburgh. Many events of the long history of Scotland are associated with Holyrood.

Loch Ness is probably Scotland's best known lake, because of the Loch Ness Monster which may live in the deep water. A large prehistoric creature is said to be living in the lake, but it is not scientifically proved to exist. A popular nickname for the Loch Ness Monster is Nessie.

The Burns Country is an area where Scotland's national poet wrote many of the world's most tender love songs. The thatched cottage at Allowav where Robert Burns was born (1759) is the starting point of a heritage trail that links together 40 places associated with the poet.


  1. What do you think makes Scotland a country interesting for visitors?

The rugged landscapes of Scotland create a certain charm and beauty. Do you agree? What poets and writers were inspired by Scotland's grandeur?

You have certainly heard about Loch Ness, the lake that has excited people's curiosity for many years. What do you think stirs the imagination and makes scientists investigate the deep waters of the lake? Are their attempts to find a scientific explanation to the loch's mystery successful?



Текст 8.

Northern Ireland

a) Read this information about Northern Ireland and find out:



  • where the population and industries are concentrated;

  • what developments are extensive in Northern Ireland;

  • what places are interesting to visit.

T
Ireland. The name effectively means 'Eire land', with the first word being the country's Irish name. It may itself mean 'western land', from a word related to Gaelic ‘iar', 'west'; although some authorities derive it from Gaelic 'i', 'island', and 'iarunn', 'iron'. The Roman name of Ireland, Hibernia, evolved as a form of Iverna, itself representing old Celtic Iveriu. This gave Erin as the poetic name for the island.
he landscape of Northern Ireland is gentle. It is green because it rains a lot. But the rain showers quickly change to sunshine — and back to rain again. The mountains roll down to the sea. Northern Ireland is a land of lakes, rivers and a varied sea coast. It is a great place for tourism.

Population and industry are concentrated on the eastern seaboard, while the rest of Northern Ireland remains predominantly rural and relies mainly upon agriculture for its livelihood.

The traditional important industries are shipbuilding and linen. Other industrial activities include the manufacture of textile machinery and a wide range of engineering products, tobacco and clothing. There has also been extensive development in oil-well equipment, electronics, telecommunications equipment, and carpets.

Belfast is one of the youngest capitals in the world. It was here that the 'Titanic' was built and sent out on her fatal maiden voyage to New York in 1912.




The 'Titanic', a British passenger liner, at the time the largest vessel afloat, sank when she collided with an iceberg.
Most of its buildings are comparatively modern. There are many cultural and leisure facilities: the Art Gallery, Belfast Cathedral, the richly-decorated City Hall, the Grand Opera House, the city's excellent Leisure Centres and the Ulster Museum are the main attractions. The Botanic Gardens have rare tropical plants which are 100 years old.

Текст 9.

Places to Visit in Northern Ireland

The Glens of Antrim form a lovely and romantic area of rivers, waterfalls, wild flowers and birds. People of the Glens are supposed to be great story-tellers. They tell stories and legends about

t
A glen is a narrow mountain valley in Ireland and Scotland.


he deeds of their heroes full of 'helmets, crowns and swords'. Their numerous myths are often mysterious and gloomy.

T


The tradition says that 'giant' comes from a folk tale that tells of a fight between two giants in which they threw distinctively shaped rocks at each other.

There is a legend of Finn, a celebrated hero of Irish mythology, known also as Finn mac Cool. He may have originated as an aspect of the god Lugh, and folklore credits him with being a giant and building the Giant's Causeway.
he Giant's Causeway on the sea coast of County Antrim is a mass of stone columns standing very near together. The tops of the rocks form stepping stones leading from the cliff foot and disappearing under the sea. There are 40,000 of these stone columns. The tallest is about 42 feet (13 m) high. This strange geological feature is believed to have been the result of volcanic action. It is sometimes called the eighth wonder of the world.

  1. What does the name of Ireland mean?

What legends are associated with the Giant's Causeway?

What story of the Titanic is universally known?



VOCABULARY

Places

lowland

cathedral

area

moor

church

attractive

mountainous

citadel

breathtaking

pasture

contemporary

charming

peak

elaborate

county

peninsula

exquisite

hamlet

plain

fortress

industrialized

plateau (pi. plateaux)

grand

lovely

ravine

imposing

peaceful

rocky

landmark

picturesque

snow-capped

lavish

populated

valley

magnificent

port

varied

majestic

region

waterfalls

masterpiece

remote

Climate, Weather

medieval

resort

average

modern

rural

changeable

outstanding

settlement

damp

palace

site

mild

present-day

splendid

moderate

priceless

urban

severe

relics

wild

shower

richly decorated

Landscape

unpredictable

superb

bare

Sightseeing

unforgettable

cliff

ancient

unique

dale

appealing

up-to-date

diverse

art gallery

 

flat

castle

 

Use the information in the texts to answer the questions.

HOW MUCH DID YOU LEARN?

  1. What are the essential differences between Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and England?

  2. How does the landscape vary in different parts of the UK and within each of the four countries?

  3. Some places in Britain are known as areas of outstanding natural beauty. Where are they situated? What are they called?

  4. What are the most populated parts of Britain and what are the reasons for the greater concentrations of people in these regions?

  5. Britain has much variety to offer. Lots of people who visit the country are drawn by its history. Which places are regarded as the most important and interesting monuments of the country's history?

Say which part of the UK can be described as:


• a very popular holiday region;

• a most/cosmopolitan place;

• a most productive industrial area;

• excellent farming land;



• an important coal-mining district;

• the wealthiest area;

• "the Garden" of England;

• the eighth wonder of the world.



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