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Департамент образования города Москвы

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования города Москвы
МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОРОДСКОЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Института педагогики и психологии образования

Кафедра раннего изучения английского языка

УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЙ КОМПЛЕКС

УЧЕБНОЙ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС ИНОСТРАННОГО ЯЗЫКА

(английский язык)

Часть II. Методические рекомендации

и план освоения дисциплины

Факультет начальных классов

031200.00 а «Педагогика и методика начального образования» с

дополнительной специальностью « Иностранный язык»

Очная форма, полный срок обучения

Факультет начальных классов

Курс III, семестр 6.

Общая трудоемкость в 6 семестре - 128 часов

Самостоятельная работа в 6 семестре - 56 часа

Аудиторная нагрузка в 6 семестре - 72 часа

Семестровый зачет по окончании 6 семестра



Москва - 2010
Методические рекомендации и план освоения дисциплины обсуждены и утверждены на заседании кафедры РИИнЯз

Протокол № 6 от 18 февраля 2010 года


Составитель - ст. преподаватель кафедры РИИнЯз, кандидат педагогических наук Ю.И. Апарина


Заведующий кафедрой – профессор, доктор педагогических наук, профессор С.Я. Ромашина



Часть II. Методические рекомендации и план усвоения учебной дисциплины

Описание учебно-методического комплекса дисциплины

"Практический курс иностранного языка" (английский язык)
Учебный материал 2-5 курса (3-10 семестры) отличается нормативной правильностью и включает сложные фонетические, грамматические, лексические конструкции, различные типы словосочетаний и клише, обеспечивающие практическое овладение основами устной и письменной речи в пределах тематики, предусмотренной программой.

Лексический минимум, подлежащий усвоению, включает в себя лексические единицы бытовой тематики и тематики общего содержания, которые, в основном, стилистически нейтральны, наиболее более употребительны и характеризуются высокой степенью сочетаемости. Все это не исключает усвоение отдельных элементов обиходно-разговорной речи, фразеологизмов, пословиц и поговорок.



Аудирование.

Обучение осуществляется на базе учебных аудиотекстов, представляющих собой литературно-разговорный стиль речи на основе изучаемого материала.



Говорение

Развитие умений говорения предполагает овладение монологической и диалогической речью в функциональных разновидностях.



Чтение

Изучающее чтение предполагает полное понимание читаемого текста. Можно использовать адаптированные произведения .

Ознакомительное чтение. Понимание составляет 80-85% содержащейся в тексте информации. Ознакомительное - это большей частью аудиторное чтение.

Письмо

В ходе обучения формируются умения и навыки графически, орфографически и пунктуационно грамотного письма, а также предполагается овладение студентами такими речевыми формами как описание, повествование или вариант их сочетаний на основе различных упражнений.



Студентам необходимо помнить, что данный курс является совершенно необходимым для профессионального владения иностранным языком, он требует от студентов целенаправленной и систематической работы по всем предлагаемым направлениям, таким как говорение, письмо, чтение и аудирование. Последовательное и постепенное усложнение лексики, предусмотренное данным курсом и базирующееся на сформированной грамматической базе предполагает формирование коммуникативной компетентности студента – будущего учителя иностранного языка.
Виды учебной работы





Виды учебной работы

Количество часов







6 - семестр

1

Всего

128

2

Самостоятельная работа

56

3

Аудиторные занятия

72

4

Промежуточный контроль

зачет

5

Итоговый контроль





ТЕМАТИЧЕСКИЙ ПЛАН КУРСА



Кол-во ччасов часов

Название темы

Средства обучения, учебный материал













VI семестр

33

2

География стран изучаемого языка

Un.7 Чтение и разбор текста, работа над лексикой текста [1, С. 230-240]

34

2

География стран изучаемого языка География стран изучаемого языка

Un.7 Упражнения на перевод, письмо [1, С. 243-249]

35

2

География стран изучаемого языка

Un. 7 Topic: «The British Isles» [1, С. 250-258]

36

2

География стран изучаемого языка

Аудирование Topic: «Geography». [5, С. 190-193] Внеклассное чтение

37

2

География стран изучаемого языка

Antonia Clare. Total English, intermediate Topic: «Geography». Диалогическая, монологическая речь

38

2

География стран изучаемого языка

Аудирование [Ireland]. Antonia Clare. Total English, intermediate, Topic: «The British Isles»

Работа с лексикой



39

2

География стран изучаемого языка

Liz Soras. New Headway, intermediate. Topic: «Geography». Работа с текстовым материалом, модификация текста

40

2

География стран изучаемого языка

Antonia Clare. Total English, intermediate Topic: «Geography».Внеклассное чтение.

41

2

География стран изучаемого языка

Liz Soras. New Headway, intermediate Topic: «Geography». Araminta Greace. Language to go, intermediate, работа с новой лексикой. Внеклассное чтение

42

2

География стран изучаемого языка

Araminta Greace. Language to go, intermediate Topic: «Geography».Работа с текстовым материалом, модификация текста

43

2

География стран изучаемого языка

Контрольная работа

Устные доклады по пройденной теме. Ролевая игра



44

2

Путешествие

Un.8 Чтение и разбор текста, работа над лексикой текста [1, С. 266-270]

45

2

Путешествие

Un.8 Упражнения на перевод, письмо [1, С.283-285] '

46

2

Путешествие

Antonia Clare. Total English, intermediate Topic: «Traveling». Внеклассное чтение

47

2

Путешествие

Araminta Greace. Language to go, intermediate. Topic: «Traveling», чтение и перевод текста.

48

2

Путешествие

Аудирование Topic: «Traveling». Liz Soras. New Headway, intermediate Topic: «A voyage round Europe»

49

2

Путешествие

Araminta Greace. Language to go, intermediate Topic: «Traveling» Работа с текстовым материалом [1, С. 286-290]

50

2

Путешествие

Araminta Greace. Language to go, intermediate. Topic: Traveling Диалогическая, монологическая речь [1, С. 290-295]

51

2

Путешествие

Аудирование «Traveling by air”[6, С. 144]. Внеклассное чтение

52

2

Путешествие

Araminta Greace. Language to go, intermediate Topic: Traveling [1, С. 290-295]

53

2

Путешествие

Antonia Clare. Total English, intermediate Topic: Traveling Закрепление лексики.

54

2

Путешествие

Контрольная работа

Устные доклады по пройденной теме



55

2

Театр

Un.9 Работа с текстом и лексикой текста [1, С. 306-310]

56

2

Театр

Un.9 Пересказ текста, упражнения на перевод [1, С. 310-315]

57

2

Театр

Topic: Theatre [1, С. 316-321] Внеклассное чтение.

58

2

Театр

Topic: Theatre Упражнения на перевод, письмо [1, с. 322-326]

59

2

Театр

Аудирование Going Out [6, С. 90] Внеклассное чтение

60

2

Театр

Antonia Clare. Total English, intermediate Topic: Theatre Работа с текстовым материалом.

61

2

Театр

Antonia Clare. Total English, intermediate Topic: Theatre Диалогическая, монологическая речь.

62

2

Театр

Аудирование «My first visit to the theatre». Внеклассное чтение

63

2

Театр

Antonia Clare. Total English, intermediate Topic: Theatre Закрепление лексики [1, С. 336-340]

64

2

Театр

Контрольная работа Устные доклады по пройденной теме

Зачет




Содержание пройденной тематики






Тесты текущего контроля (семестр 6).
Test 2

1. When did you the news?

a. know b. learn

2. home we met with an accident.

a. by the way b. on the way с. in the way

3. Let me pass, don't stand my way.

a. in b. on с. across

4. He lectures regularly.

a. visits b. attends

5. She always black.

a. wears b. dresses

6. I was sure to be put down the desk next to the girl

didn't like.

a. at b. to c. in d. -

7. When I come across unknown words I look them in the

dictionary.

a. through b. up с. down d. at

8. Don't punish him. He did it ignorance.

a. on b. by с. from d. over

9. I don't like the way she her lip when talking to me.

a. leans b. curls с. bends d. carves

10. He broke in the middle of a sentence.

a. down b. out с. through d. off

11.My school practice began when I was .

a.in the third year b. on the third course d. at the third

course
12 I don't like lectures Theory of Education.

' a. of b. in с. on

13. Teacher training is realized at universities and colleges of education. a.higher b. high с. highest



14

You have to catch the group.

a. on at b. up with с. out d. down

15. The word which is not associated with football is .

a. soccer b. goal с. puck d. forward

16. Let's find a _ room and work there.

a. vacant b. spare с. loose d. blank

17. I was rather by his rudeness.

a. up and down b. taken aback с. to pieces d. down and out

18. Do you want to me mad?

a. bring b. run с. drive

19. I've come later than .

a. usual b. usually

20. I knew my own experience he never deceived people.

a. from b. on с. out of d. on account of

21. He a pause and then went on speaking.

a. did b. made с. produced

22. Children like to play a ball.

a. in b. with с -

23. The match ended a draw.

a. in b. with c. by d. at

24. If a man wins rarely, he has bad luck cards.

a. in b. at c. with

25. To "kick" means " ".

a. to hit with your foot b. to hit with your fist с. to hit with

your head
26. He is the world in high jump.

a. record keeper b. record holder c. recodist


27.A lot of people go in for___________ athletics.
a. heavy b. light с. track and field d. weight-lifting

28. Wouldn't you like to in this competition?

a. win the cup b. earn the score с. gain the prize

29. have been built to irrigate the desert.

a. canals b. channels

30. In this area rivers are rather .

a. blank b. shallow c. flat

31. There are chalk cliffs France.

a. within a few miles of b. within a few miles from c. in the few miles of

32. Rivers a good supply of fresh water.

a. hold b. serve с. give

33. The coast of the island is regular outline.

a. in b. with с. by d. on

34. The rivers of Britain are of no great value as water- .

a. roads b. paths с. ways

35. I prefer tea _____ coffee.

a. to b. for с of d. against

36. The half of our country is covered mainly with plains.

a. west b. western

37. The region is rich coal.

a. in b. of c. with d. by

38. In the south of England there are a lot of valleys.

a. furtive b. fiscal с. fertile d. fissile

39. The climate of Russia greatly from that of Australia.

a. differs b. varies с. changes d. various e. difference

40. He has been desperately since his wife left him.

a. alone b. lonely с. single

41. She lives in the house.

a. alone b. lonely с single

42. The house has been at 42,000 pounds.

a. appreciated b. valued с. estimating

43. I have with him.

a. not anything do b. do nothing с. nothing to do

44. I must do to help him.

a. my best b. one's best с his best d. all best
45. You felt out of it, yоu stood there from foot to foot,

trying to make conversation.

a. shrugging b. shuffling с shivering d. shuddering

46.He__ his friend off at the bus station.

' a. looked b. watched с. Saw
47. There was something in his appearance that made him

recognize.a. hard to b. hardly to с. hardly

48. The problem the trouble taken.

a. is hard worth b. is hardly worth с. is hardly worth of d. hard worth of

49. Some new information has the accident.

a. shed light at b. set light to с. come to light about

50. We could see beautiful pastures from the window of

the carriage.

a. sunlit b. sunshine с. sunlight d. sun lighted

51. Unless we get mote finding we'll be prevented fin­


ishing our experiment.

a. off b. - с. from d. out of

52. How does she her living?

a. gain b. earn с win d. work

53. This medicine will .

a. do you good b. do you well с. make you well

54. We always when we travel.

a. go sights b. do the sights с. go to sightseeing

55. You've a lot of mistakes in your test.

a. done b. made

56. He didn't manage to keep hold the rope and fell.

a. of b. on с. to

57. Mother was always anxious our health.

a. with b. of с. about

58. He said good-bye and towards the harbour.

a. had his own way b. made his way с. gave way d. made way

59. She always when she doesn't get my letters for a long

time.


a. worries b. anxious с bother d. troubled
60. at school is demanded by law.

a. attendant b. attending с. attendance

61. Nothing can make __ such a wonderful opportunity.

a. off with b. up to c. up for d. over

62. He arrived the hotel late at night.

a. at b. in с. to

63. The actors taking part in the play are called the .

a. cast b. staff с. stuff

64. The Royal Opera House gives regular ______ of opera and

ballet.


a. sessions b. terms с. periods d. seasons

65. Our seats were in the near the orchestra-pit,

a. stalls b. pit c. gallery d. dress-circle

66. Theatres that have their own permanent company are called


theatres.

a. amateur b. repertory с. dramatic

67. Last year we went _______ a trip to Italy.

a. to b. for с. on

68. The best cure for is a large piece of dry land.

a. seasick b. seasickness



  1. Every time the ship called a port she went shopping. a. in b. at с. to d. -

  2. He always travels first class.

a. by b. at с. in the d. -

71. Why do some people like traveling ?

a. by train b. by a car с. by the plain

72. I didn 't feel well as the sea was .

a. rugged b. rough c. rude d. rage

73. Last week we made a wonderful to the mountains.

a. cruise b. voyage с. trip d. hitch-hiking

74. I'm ready to help you, I'm always your service.

a. at b. in с. for d. on

75. It serves you for your conduct.

a. wrong b. right c. straight

76. I am not really familiar the taxation laws here.

a. to b. for с. with

77. His speech made an on everybody.


a.impress b. impression с impressive d. impressing

78. His story __ new light on the events.

a. threw b. cast с. dropped

79. She worked the light of a candle.

a. with b. at с. by

80. I can't read while you're standing my light.

a. in b. on с. against d. before

Ключи


lb 2b 3a 4b 5a 6a 7b 8c 9b l0d 11a 12c 13a 14b 15c 16a 17b 18c 19a 20a 21b 22b 23a 24b 25a 26b 27c 28a 29a 30b 31a 32c 33a 34c 35a 36b 37a 38c 39a 40b 41a 42b 43c 44a 45b 46c 47a 48b 49c 50a 51c 52b 53a 54b 55b 56a 57c 58b 59a 60c 61c 62a 63a 64d 65a 66b 67c 68b 69b 70d 71a 72b 73c 74a 75b 76c 77b 78a 79c 80a


Зачет (3 курс 6 семестр)

Тексты для письменного перевода

1.Спорт в Великобритании очень популярен, хотя не мно­гие люди активно занимаются спортом. В большинстве случаев они смотрят спортивные передачи по телевизору. Самый популярный зрелищный спорт - футбол. Болель­щики путешествуют из одного конца страны в другой, чтобы поддержать свою команду.

2.Ты никогда не отвечаешь на мои письма, никогда не про­являешь ни малейшего интереса к тому, что я делаю. У меня не возникает ни капли сомнения в том, что ты вы­брасываешь мои письма в корзину для мусора, даже не прочитав их. Поэтому я буду писать только о своей учёбе. На прошлой неделе у меня была переэкзаменовка по ла­тинскому и геометрии. Я сдала оба экзамена, и теперь я второкурсница.

3.Британия сравнительно маленькая страна. Но едва ли в мире найдётся ещё одна такая же с таким разнообразием пейзажей. Здесь есть дикие пустынные горы в северных высокогорьях Шотландии, множество ровных полей, по­крытых тюльпанами, вокруг Фенленда. В нескольких ми­лях от Манчестера можно любоваться величественными вересковыми пустошами. Когда-то Британские острова были частью материка, от которого теперь они отделены проливом Дувр, на берегу которого в 22 милях от Фран­ции находятся известковые утёсы Великобритании.

4.Больше всего меня поразило метро. Станции кажутся ма­ленькими городками с магазинами, эскалаторами, маши­нами, которые выдают тебе сдачу и билет до любой стан­ции. Когда я вошёл в метро, то зажёг сигарету и вскоре обнаружил, что многие в метро курят. На следующий день в автобусе я зажёг сигарету, но мне вежливо объяс­нили, что в автобусе курить нельзя.

5.Что касается меня, я думаю, нет ничего лучше путешест­вия на самолёте. Это удобнее и гораздо быстрее, чем лю­бой другой вид транспорта. Не нужно пересаживаться с поезда на пароход, а затем опять на поезд. Кроме того, полёт - довольно-таки волнующее событие. Это сочета­ние скорости, удобства и удовольствия.

6.Дэвид не мог позволить себе ехать на поезде, не говоря уже о самолёте. Плата за проезд была слишком высока. Из багажа у него была одна сумка, с которой он отпра­вился путешествовать неделю назад. Он хорошо отдох­нул, потратил все деньги, которые имел при себе, и те­перь ему приходилось добираться домой автостопом.

7.Молодые люди поступают в колледж после окончания школы, как правило, в 18 лет. Обычно курс обучения длится три года. Учебный план в педагогическом коллед­же основан на обязательных и факультативных дисцип­линах. Основным предметом является педагогика. Все студенты колледжа проводят 12 недель на педагогической практике в школе.

8.Трафальгарская площадь - это естественный центр горо­да. Если бы можно было встать на высоте 168 футов ря­дом с фигурой адмирала Нельсона, можно было бы уви­деть все ориентиры Лондона. Уайтхолл, которая выходит с площади к югу - местонахождение многих правительст­венных учреждений, включая резиденцию премьер-министра. В дальнем конце Уайтхолл рядом с Темзой, стоит здание парламента с башней, на которой находится Биг Бен.

9.Россия - самая большая страна в Европе и Азии. Её гра­ницы самые большие по протяжённости в мире. Природные условия России весьма разнообразны. Если пересечь страну от крайнего севера до юга, можно получить хоро­шее представление о климатических контрастах, не гово­ря уже о разнообразии пейзажей и растительности, харак­терных для разных географических зон. Каждый регион страны имеет своё лицо.

Нет в мире другой такой страны с таким разнообразием ландшафтов, как Россия. Западная часть страны в основ­ном покрыта равнинами. Страна разделена на две части Уральскими горами. Большая часть территории восточ­ной части покрыта обширными плато и горными цепями. На юге равнины ограничены гоными хребтами. Здесь на­ходятся самые высокие вершины в стране. Самые важные реки западной равнины - Волга, Западная Двина, Дон и Северная Двина.

Когда мы пришли, зал был уже полон. Через несколько минут занавес поднялся, и все взгляды устремились на сцену. Декорации были очень простые, в чёрных, серых и белых тонах, поэтому яркие костюмы действующих лиц выглядели очень эффектно. Состав исполнителей был не­плохой, а игра актёра, исполнявшего главную роль, пора­зила меня. По окончании спектакля зал взорвался апло­дисментами. Актёров несколько раз вызывали на поклон.

Театральное дело в Великобритании находится в руках менеджеров. До недавнего времени страна не имела сво­его национального театра. Ещё в 1949 году Палата Общин приняла решение о постройке здания для национального театра в Лондоне. Лишь в 1962 году была создана труппа. Национальный театр временно помещался в здании теат­ра «Олд Вик». Руководителем театра был назначен один из ведущих актёров - сэр Лоренс Оливье. В репертуар те­атра входят классические драмы Англии и других стран.


  1. В самом центре Сити, напротив главного банка Англии, стоит статуя Веллингтона - знаменитого английского ге­нерала и государственного деятеля 19 века. Под его ко­мандованием английские войска совместно со своими союзниками нанесли поражение армии Наполеона под Ватерлоо в 1815 году.

  2. В Вестминстере, ещё одной важной части Лондона, где расположено большинство правительственных зданий, находится Вестминстерское аббатство. Здесь похоронены британские монархи, выдающиеся государственные дея­тели, художники, поэты. На другой стороне улицы нахо­дится Вестминстерский дворец - рабочее место британ­ского парламента. Его две элегантные башни возвышают­ся над городом. На той, которая выше, находятся самые большие знаменитые часы Биг Бен.

  3. В последнее время мне приходится много заниматься, чтобы догнать группу. У меня было воспаление лёгких, и я пропустила много занятий. Вся беда в том, что за время моей болезни студенты выучили много новых слов, и те­перь мне приходится смотреть их в словаре, чтобы пере­водить тексты. Я стала делать много ошибок в контроль­ных, а мне скоро сдавать экзамен. Должна признаться, я сильно нервничаю и очень благодарна своей подруге за помощь в подготовке к занятиям.

Тексты для пересказа

1. Eliza Riley Return to Paradise

Lisa gazed out over the Caribbean Sea, feeling the faint breeze against her face - eyes shut, the white sand warm between her bare toes. The place was beautiful beyond belief, but it was still un­able to ease the grief she felt as she remembered the last time she had been here.

She had married James right here on this spot three years ago to the day. Dressed in a simple white shift dress, miniature white roses at­tempting to tame her long dark curls, Lisa had been happier than she had ever thought possible. James was even less formal but utterly irre­sistible in creased summer trousers and a loose white cotton shirt. His dark hair slightly ruffled and his eyes full of adoration as his looked at his bride to be. The justice of the peace had read their vows as they held hands and laughed at the sheer joy of being young, in love and staying in a five star resort on the Caribbean island of the Dominican Republic. They had seen the years blissfully stretching ahead of them, together forever. They planned their children, two she said, he said four so they compromised on three (two girls and a boy of course); where they would live, the travelling they would do together - it was all certain, so they had thought then.

But that seemed such a long time ago now. A lot can change in just a few years - a lot of heartache can change a person and drive a wedge through the strongest ties, break even the deepest love. Three years to the day and they had returned, though this time not for the beachside marriages the island was famous for but for one of its equally popular quickie divorces.

Lisa let out a sigh that was filled with pain and regret. What could she do but move on, find a new life and new dreams? - the old one was beyond repair. How could this beautiful place, with its lush green coastline, eternity of azure blue sea and endless sands be a place for the agony she felt now?

The man stood watching from the edge of the palm trees. He couldn't take his eyes of the dark-haired woman he saw standing at the water's edge, gazing out to sea as though she was waiting for some­thing - or someone. She was beautiful, with her slim figure dressed in a loose flowing cotton dress, her crazy hair and bright blue eyes not far off the colour of the sea itself. It wasn't her looks that attracted him though; he came across many beautiful women in his work as a free­lance photographer. It was her loneliness and intensity that lured him. Even at some distance he was aware that she was different from any other woman he could meet.

Lisa sensed the man approaching even before she turned around. She had been aware of him standing there staring at her and had felt strangely calm about being observed. She looked at him and felt the instant spark of connection she had only experienced once before. He walked slowly towards her and they held each other's gaze. It felt like meeting a long lost friend - not a stranger on a strange beach.

Later, sitting at one of the many bars on the resort, sipping the local cocktails they began to talk. First pleasantries, their hotels, the quality of the food and friendliness of the locals. Their conversation was strangely hesitant considering the naturalness and confidence of their earlier meeting. Onlookers, however, would have detected the subtle flirtation as they mirrored each other's actions and spoke directly into each other's eyes. Only later, after the alcohol had had its loosening effect, did the conversation deepen. They talked of why they were here and finally, against her judgment, Lisa opened up about her heartache of the past year and how events had led her back to the place where she had married the only man she believed she could ever love. She told him of things that had been locked deep inside her, able to tell no one. She told him how she had felt after she had lost her baby.

She was six months pregnant and the happiest she had ever been when the pains had started. She was staying with her mother as James was working out of town. He hadn't made it back in time. The doctor had said it was just one of those things, that they could try again. But how could she when she couldn't even look James in the eye. She hated him then, for not being there, for not hurting as much as her but most of all for looking so much like the tiny baby boy that she held for just three hours before the took him away. All through the following months she had withdrawn from her husband, family, friends. Not wanting to recover form the pain she felt - that would have been a be­trayal of her son. At the funeral she had refused to stand next to her husband and the next day she had left him.

Looking up, Lisa could see her pain reflected in the man's eyes. For the first time in months she didn't feel alone, she felt the unbearable burden begin to lift from her, only a bit but it was a start. She began to believe that maybe she had a future after all and maybe it could be with this man, with his kind hazel eyes, wet with their shared tears.

They had come here to dissolve their marriage but maybe there was hope. Lisa stood up and took James by the hand and led him away

from the bar towards the beech where they had made their vows to each other three years ago. Tomorrow she would cancel the divorce; tonight they would work on renewing their promises.



2. Jeffrey Thomas John Sadness

(Extract)

Jane Thistle was wrenched with sobs as the tiny raft was carried by the holy men to the water's edge. She walked in the procession, though she was still weak from the long labor that had delivered the blighted infant. Her husband John Thistle helped support her. Others, deemed more important in the ritual, walked ahead of them, even though they were the parents. There was the mayor of the village, John Stout, and the village surgeon, John Copper, their black top hats severe like pa­rading towers. The four religious men in their cowled robes and san­daled feet, bearing along the flower-decorated raft, took the lead.

The nameless lake spread out before them, vast and black, misted gray where it blended with a distant horizon, lapping the shore with an insidious calm. Violent storms never blew in off this lake, and the oily waves never much varied their steady, somnambulant rhythm. Fish were not caught from this lake, and boats were never sailed upon it. Even travelers from the villages on its far side would rather spend months skirting around it than weeks sailing across it. Too many had been lost in the attempt. Too many had died eating the fish. It was said that these waters were tainted with the fluids from the machinery of those ancient people who had once populated this land, but had died out many ages ago, extinguishing themselves so thoroughly that they took most of their artifacts along with them.

But there was an island at the center of the lake, Jane Thistle had been assured by the surgeon who examined her newborn, and the mayor who had given the Word, in accordance with the laws of their religion. No one alive had ever set foot upon this island, but it had been sighted before travel on the lake had finally been entirely out­lawed. Though never visible from the shore, it was a large island, thick with black fir trees choked in swirling mist. It was the island to which the waters would either literally - or only symbolically - carry away her child.

And now the robed men set the raft down in the thin water that slurped around their ankles (they would take long purifying baths to cleanse themselves later). All throughout the walk from the village, the infant had been quiet, had not fussed. Was he sleeping, or blinking up innocently at the churning gray skies, the faces of the strangers who bore him toward his fate? His name was John Sadness. The par­ents of the blighted were discouraged from naming these infants, when they were occasionally born. But Jane Thistle had named him secretly. Even her husband did not know his name.

But now, as if he knew he was to be sent to an obvious death, John Sadness began to cry. And so did his mother, who in a burst of an­guish sought to rush to his side. Her husband held her back. He was afraid that if he didn't, one of the constables behind him would do so instead.

Mayor John Stout addressed the distraught woman in a deep, ora­torical voice that belched out steam into the chill air. "Madam, I have given the Word, in accordance with the laws of our Lord and Master, and upon the advice of Surgeon John Copper. But you need no sur­geon's eyes to see that your child is blighted, and must be sent from us to the place where his brothers dwell."

"No other blighted children dwell on that island!" Jane Thistle cried, a vein standing out on her flushed forehead like a brand of dis­grace. "You know as well as I that they all perish from the cold, or in the water, or if they do wash up on the island, that they are too young and weak to care for themselves!"

"We do not murder these children. They are the Lord's children, howsoever malformed. We simply turn them over to the Lord's hands. But the Word tells us that they must not live amongst us, to spread their polluted seed. Would you have every child born of our village to be as this child?"

In her pain and helplessness, Jane's legs turned watery, insubstan­tial beneath her, so that she leaned more heavily into her husband's arms, however much she resented them at this moment. Her sobs in­creased as her child bawled more lustily. He wanted milk. He wanted his mother.

"He isn't that badly off!" she rasped, only half believing her own He. She had had to drip milk into his twisted mouth with a dropper. And she had screamed when first she saw his face - not only because she knew he would be sent away, but out of simple terror itself. "Couldn't we castrate him, so that he won't breed? He has two arms, two legs, he could support himself when he's older - be of help to the village".

"There are no exceptions. He would be sent away if he had but a cleft palate, a milky eye. It is the only way that the rest of us can be sure of our purity. We cast no blame on you, Jane Thistle. You did not ask for this curse, nor deserve it I am sure. But the Word is the Word. And we can delay the Lord's decree no longer"

"Please...please," Jane husked, now nearly limp in her husband's embrace, no longer struggling, "let me kiss his brow - one last time".

But the holy men either did not hear her beaten whimper, or did not heed it, as they pushed the miniature raft out into the lake of liquid obsidian. There, it was rocked obscenely, if gently, like a cradle. Jane Thistle could see nothing of her son John Sadness upon that floating coffin but for the flowers, and his two small arms - deformed as they were - reaching up for the neck of his mother, or in an appeal to their God.



3. Rocking-Horse Winner

by D.H. Lawrence

(Extract)

There was a woman who was beautiful, who started with all the ad­vantages, yet she had no luck. She married for love, and the love turned to dust. She had bonny children, yet she felt they had been thrust upon her, and she could not love them. They looked at her coldly, as if they were finding fault with her. And hurriedly she felt she must cover up some fault in herself. Yet what it was that she must cover up she never knew. Nevertheless, when her children were pres­ent, she always felt the centre of her heart go hard. This troubled her, and in her manner she was all the more gentle and anxious for her children, as if she loved them very much. Only she herself knew that at the centre of her heart was a hard little place that could not feel love, no, not for anybody. Everybody else said of her: "She is such a good mother. She adores her children." Only she herself, and her children themselves, knew it was not so. They read it in each other's eyes.

There was a boy and two little girls. They lived in a pleasant house, with a garden, and they had discreet servants, and felt themselves su­perior to anyone in the neighbourhood.

Although they lived in style, they felt always an anxiety in the house. There was never enough money. The mother had a small in­come, and the father had a small income, but not nearly enough for the social position which they had to keep up. The father went into town to some office. But though he had good prospects, these prospects never materialised. There was always the grinding sense of the short­age of money, though the style was always kept up.

At last the mother said: "I will see if I can't make something." But she did not know where to begin. She racked her brains, and tried this thing and the other, but could not find anything successful. The failure made deep lines come into her face. Her children were growing up, they would have to go to school. There must be more money, there must be more money. The father, who was always very handsome and expensive in his tastes, seemed as if he never would be able to do anything worth doing. And the mother, who had a great belief in her­self, did not succeed any better, and her tastes were just as expensive.

And so the house came to be haunted by the unspoken phrase: There must be more money! There must be more money! The children could hear it all the time though nobody said it aloud. They heard it at Christmas, when the expensive and splendid toys filled the nursery. Behind the shining modern rocking-horse, behind the smart doll's house, a voice would start whispering: "There must be more money! There must be more money!" And the children would stop playing, to listen for a moment. They would look into each other's eyes, to see if they had all heard. And each one saw in the eyes of the other two that they too had heard. "There must be more money! There must be more money!"

It came whispering from the springs of the still-swaying rocking-horse, and even the horse, bending his wooden, champing head, heard it. The big doll, sitting so pink and smirking in her new pram, could hear it quite plainly, and seemed to be smirking all the more self-consciously because of it. The foolish puppy, too, that took the place of the teddy-bear, he was looking so extraordinarily foolish for no other reason but that he heard the secret whisper all over the house: 'There must be more money!"

Yet nobody ever said it aloud. The whisper was everywhere, and therefore no one spoke it. Just as no one ever says: "We are breath­ing!" in spite of the fact that breath is coming and going all the time.

"Mother," said the boy Paul one day, "why don't we keep a car of our own? Why do we always use uncle's, or else a taxi?"

"Because we're the poor members of the family," said the mother. "But why are we, mother?"

"Well - I suppose," she said slowly and bitterly, "it's because your father has no luck."

The boy was silent for some time.

"Is luck money, mother?" he asked, rather timidly.

"No, Paul. Not quite. It's what causes you to have money."

"Oh!" said Paul vaguely. "I thought when Uncle Oscar said filthy lucker, it meant money."

"Filthy lucre does mean money," said the mother. "But it's lucre, not luck."

"Oh!" said the boy. "Then what is luck, mother?"

"It's what causes you to have money. If you're lucky you have money. That's why it's better to be born lucky than rich. If you're rich, you may lose your money. But if you're lucky, you will always get more money."

"Oh! Will you? And is father not lucky?"

"Very unlucky, I should say," she said bitterly.

The boy watched her with unsure eyes.

"Why?" he asked.

"I don't know. Nobody ever knows why one person is lucky and an­other unlucky."

"Don't they? Nobody at all? Does nobody know?"

"Perhaps God. But He never tells."

"He ought to, then. And aren't you lucky either, mother?"

"I can't be, it I married an unlucky husband."

"But by yourself, aren't you?"


I used to think I was, before I married. Now I think I am very un­lucky indeed." "Why?"

"Well - never mind! Perhaps I'm not really," she said. The child looked at her to see if she meant it. But he saw, by the lines of her mouth, that she was only trying to hide something from him.


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