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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

имени ШАКАРИМА г.СЕМЕЙ


Документ СМК 3 уровня


УМКД

УМКД 042-18-17.1.24/03-2013



УМКД

Учебно-методические материалы по дисциплине «Теоретические проблемы изучаемого языка»


Редакция №__ от ______________201_г.




УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЙ КОМПЛЕКС ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
«Теоретические проблемы изучаемого языка»
для специальности 5В020700 «Переводческое дело»

УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ

Семей


2013

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

  1. Глоссарий

  2. Лекции

  3. Практические и лабораторные занятия

  4. Курсовая работа (проект)

  5. Самостоятельная работа студента


1 ГЛОССАРИЙ

Definition – определение, дефиниция

Word meaning – значение слов

direct meaning of the word – прямое значение слова

denotative meaning of the word – денотативное значение слова

connotative meaning of the word – коннотативное значение слова

contextual meaning of the word – контекстное значение

morpheme – морфема

morphemic structure of the word – морфемная структура слова

semasiology - семасиология

semantic component – семантический компонент

special lexicology – частная лексикология

general lexicology – общая лексикология

contrastive lexicology – сопоставительная лексикология

comparative lexicology – сравнительная лексикология

lexical valency – лексическая валентность

paradigm - парадигма

paradigmatic relation – пададигматическая связь

syntagmatic relation – синтагматическая связь

affix – аффикс

suffix – суффикс

prefix – префикс

infix- инфикс

derivational affixes – словообразующий аффикс

functional affixes – функциональный аффикс

root morpheme – корневая морфема

stem – основа

native words – исконно английские слова

borrowed words – заимствованные слова

word formation – словообразование

word composition – словосложение

conversion – конверсия

back formation – обратный порядок слов,

litotes - литота

euphemism - эвфемизм

irony - ирония

hyperbole - гипербола

metaphor - метафора

metonymy – метонимия

synecdoche - синекдоха

homonym – омоним

synonym - синоним

antonym - антоним

polysemantic – многозначный

connotation – коннотация

lexico-grammatical variant – лексико-грамматический вариант

idiom - идиома

cliche - клише

familiar quotations – крылатые выражения

proverbs – пословицы

the deterninant – определяемое

the determinatum- определяющий

synonymic dominant – синонимическая доминант

learned words – книжные слова

informal vocabulary – неформальная лексика

functional style – функциональный стиль

poetic style – поэтический стиль

Indo-European origin – Индо-европейское происхождение

Common Germanic – общее германское происхождение

compound word – сложные слова

set expressions – устойчивые выражения

phraseological units – фразеологические единицы

phraseological fusions – фразеологические сращения

phraseological combinations – фразеологические сочетания

semantic change of words – семантическое изменение значения слова

miner types of word formation – непродуктивные способы словообразования

shortening – сокращение

abbreviation – аббревиатура

semantic triangle – семантический треугольник

free forms – свободные формы

sound imitation – звукоподражание

Genaralization of word meaning – расширение значения слова

specialization of word meaning – сужение значения слова

lexical unit – лексическая единица

Affixation - аффиксация

functional change – функциональный переход

taboo – табу

non-productive suffixs – непродуктивные суффиксы

productive suffixes – продуктивные суффиксы

inversion – инверсия

lexicography – лексикография

synchronic – синхронический

diachronic – диахронический

inflection – флексия

paronyms – паронимы

contextual synonyms – контекстные синонимы

stylistic synonyms – стилистические синонимы

ideographical synonyms – идиографические синонимы

Linguistic – лингвистический

Extralinguistic – экстралингвистический

archaic words - архаизмы

dialects - диалекты

word stock – словарный состав

stylistically colored words – стилистически окрашенные слова

irony - ирония

simile – сравнение

slang - слэнг

explanatory dictionary – толковый словарь

dictionaries of word-frequency – словарь частотности

specialized dictionary- специальный словарь

phraseological dictionary – фразеологический словарь

syntagmatic level – синтагматический уровень

paradigmatic level – парадигматический уровень

historical etymology – историчекая этимология

folk etymology – народная этимология

onomasiology - ономасиология

etymological dictionary – этимологический словарь

linguistic dictionaries – лингвистический словарь

Neologisms – неологизмы

Vulgarisms – варваризмы

encyclopedic dictionary – энциклопедический словарь

semantic integrity – семантическая целостность

indivisibility – неделимость

ready-made units – готовые к употреблению единицы

word equivalent – эквивалент слова

Standard English – стандартный английский язык

American English- американский английский язык

semantic field – семантическое поле

sound – звук

phoneme – фонема

consonant phoneme – согласная фонема

vowel phoneme – гласная фонема

The principles of vowel classification – принципы классификации гласных

The principles consonant classification - принципы классификации согласных

articulatory system – артикуляторная система

Phonemic component - фонемный компонент

Syllabic component - слоговый компонент

Accentual component - акцентный компонент

Intonation component - интонационный компонент

Articulation basis - артикуляторная база

Syllabic structure – слоговая структура

Syllabic and non-syllabic phonemes - слогообразующие и неслогообразующие фонемы

An open syllable – открытый слог

A closed syllable – закрытый слог

A covered type of syllable – прикрытый тип слога

An uncovered type of syllable – неприкрытый тип слога

Syllable formation – слогообразование

Syllable division – слогоделение

phonetic syllable – фонетический слог

orfhographic syllable – орфографический слог

Modification of phonemes – чередование фонем

Word accent – ударение слова

Degrees of word accent – степени ударения слова

Place of word stress – место ударения слова

Intonation structure – интонационная структура

Functions of intonation structure - функции интонационной структуры

Constitutive function – конститутивная функция

Distinctive function - различительная функция

recognitive function – рекогнитивная функция

Pronunciation – произношение

accomodation – ассомодация (взаимное приспособление разнотипных слогов)

acoustic – акустический, слуховой

adaptation – адаптация

adjacent sounds – смежные, примыкающие звуки

affricate – смычно-щелевой чсогласный звук

allophone – аллофон, качественный вариант фонемы

alveolar – альвеолярный, десенный

aspirate – произносить с придыханием

aspiration – аспирация, придыхание

аssimilation – ассимиляция, уподобление

back advanced – задный продвинутый вперед (к центру)

backlingual – заднеязычный

bilabial – губно-губной

cavity – полость

cluster of consonants – скопление согласных

Cockney pronunciation – просторечное произношение восточного Лондона

collocation – словосочетание

colloquial style – разговорный стиль

constrictive – шелевой

contextual assimilation – ассимилятивное явление в контексте

dental – зубной, дентальный

devoicing – оглушение звонких согласных

disyllabic – двусложный

elision – элизия, выпадение гласных

exhalation – выдыхание, экспирация

expiratory – выдыхательный

forelingual – переднеязычный

fortis – сильный звук

glottal – гортанный

hard palate – твердое небо

incomplete plosion – неполный взрыв, потеря взырыва

inhale – вдыхать, производить вдох

inspire – вдыхать, производить вдох

inspiration – вдыхание, вдох

interdental – межзубной

intermediate – промежточный

labial – лабиальный, губной

labio-dental – губно-зубной

laryngal – гортанный

larynx – гортань

lateral – латеральный, боковой

lax – слабый, ненапряженный

lenis – слабый звук

long parentheses – длинные вставки

manner of production – спосб образования

monosyllabic – односложный

mouth cavity – полость рта

nasal cavity – носовая полость

nostrils – ноздри

nucleus – ячейка, ядро

obstruction – препятствие, преграда

occlusive – смычный

occurrence – употребительность

off-glide – отзвук

on-glide- призвук

palatalization – смягчение согласных

pitch – высота основного тона

place of obstruction – место образования преграды

place of articulation – место артикуляции

plosive – взрывной согласный

prominence – выделеннсть(акустическая)

rapid style – беглый стиль произношения

received pronunciation – общепринятое произношение

recessive tendency – рецессивная тенденция

reciprocal assimilation – двусторонняя ссимиляция

reduction – редукция

retracted position – оттянутое положение языка

rhyme – рифма

rhythm – ритм

sonority – звучность, сонорность

syllabic – слоговый

tempo of speech – темп речи

tense – натянутый, упругий, напряженный

unvoiced sounds – глухиезвуки

utterance – высказывание

uvula – небный язычок

velar – велярный, заденебный

vocal chords – голосовые связки

voiced – звонкий

voiceless – глухой

windpipe – дыхательное горло, трахея

word stress – словесное ударение

X-ray photography – рентгенография

Adjective- Прилагательное

Adverb of manner- наречие образа действия

Adverbial clause of cause- придаточное предложения причины

Adverbial clause of time- придаточное предложения времени

Adverbial modifier of place- обстоятельство места

Adverbial modifier of time- обстоятельство времени

Affirmative- утвердительная форма

Appendix- приложение

Appropriate- соответствующий

Aspect- вид

Attributive clause- определительное придаточное предложение

Auxilary verb- вспомогательный глагол

Blanks- пустые места, пробелы

Borrow-заимствовать

Brackets-скобки

Case-падеж

Class noun- имя существительное

Collective noun- имя существительное,собирательное

Colloquial-разговорный

Common noun-нарицательное имя существительное

Comparative-сравнительный

Compare-сравнивать

Complete-закончить

Completed action-завершенное действие

Compound-составное слово

Condition- условие

Conditional sentence- условное предложение

Conjunction- союз

Connecting adverb- наречие,служащее для соединения

Consequence – следствие

Consonant- согласная

Correct- правильный

Corresponding- соответствующий

Countable noun- исчисляемое существительное

Customary action- обычное действие

Defining- определительный

Degree-мера, степень

Degrees of comparison- степени сравнения

Demonstrative-указательный

Denote- обозначать

Derivative- производный

Direct speech-прямая речь

Ending- окончание

Example- пример

Express- выражать

Expression-выражение

Extend- продолжить

Feminine- женский род

Fiction- художественная литература

Formation- образование

Future- будущий, будущее время

General question-общий вопрос

Habitual- привычный

Imply- подразумевать

Indefinite- неопределенны

Indirect speech- косвенная речь

Insert- вставить

Italic type-курсивный шрифт

Interrogative – вопросительный

Intransitive verb- непереходный глагол

Introduce- вводить

Inversion- инверсия, обратный порядок слов в предложении

Irregular verb-неправильный глагол

Join- соединить,объединить

Limited- ограниченный

Masculine- мужской род

Meaning-значение

Measure-мера

Mind-обратить внимание

Missing- недостающий

Negative- отрицательный

Negative sentence- отрицательное предложение

Nominative case- падеж, соответствующий именительному

Noun- существительное

Number- число

Object clause- дополнительное придаточное предложение

Objective pronouns- местоимение в объектном падеже

Observe- соблюдать, байқау

Omit- пропускать, опускать

Opinion- мнение, суждение

Order- приказ

Particle-частица

Passive voice- страдательный залог

Past- прошедший

Pattern- модель

Pecularity- особенность

Permanent action- постоянное действие,факт

Person- лицо

Personal- личный

Plural-множественное число

Positive sentence- утвердительное предложение

Possessive- притяжательный

Posterior- последующий

Prefix- приставка

Preposition- предлог

Prepositional object- предложное дополнение

Present- настоящее время

Previous- предыдущий

Principal clause-главное предложение

Prior- предшествующий

Proceed-предшествовать

Productive-продуктивный

Pronoun- местоимение

Proper noun- собственное имя существительное

Quantity- количество

Question- вопрос

Real condition-реальное условие

Reciprocal- взаимный

Reflexive- возвратный

Relations-взаимо-отношение

Render-передавать

Repeated action- повторяющееся действие

Replace- заменить

Reported speech-косвенная речь

Request-просьба

Required- требуемый

Reword-перефразировать

Rule- правило

Sequence of tenses- согласование времен

Simultaneous- одновременный

Singular- единственное число

Special question- специальный вопрос

State- состояние

Stem-корень

Subject-подлежащее

Subordinate clause- придаточное предложение

Substitute- заменить

Succession of actions- последовательность действий

Superlative- превосходный

Syllable- слог

Temporary aсtion- периодическое,временное действие время

Uncountable noun- неисчисляемое существительное

Unproductive- непродуктивный

Unreal condition-нереальное условие

Viewpoint adverb- наречие выражающее точку зрения

When/if clause- придаточное предложение времени и условия

Wish- желание, пожелание

Zero-нулевой
2 ЛЕКЦИИ

Лекция 1. English phonetics and phonology.

Содержание лекционного занятия:

1 The object of phonology. Phoneme and sound. Articulatory setting of English and Russian.

2 The system of English consonants. The system of English vowels. Positional length of vowels.

3 Syllable. Stress.

Содержание лекции:

Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). Whereas phonetics is about the physical production and perception of the sounds of speech, phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages. An important part of phonology is studying which sounds are distinctive units within a language. Phonology studies how sounds alternate and topics such as syllable structure, stress, accent, and intonation.

Objectives:

- Phonemes, phone and allophones

- Minimal Pairs

- Phonotactics

- Syllables

Phonology à helps us consistently recognize the different versions of a word, e.g. “me” as the form [mi], and not [ni], [si], [ma], [mo]. An important part of phonology is studying which sounds are distinctive units within a language.

- The smallest unit by which one can distinguish one word from another (meaning-distinguishing units in a language).



  • A phoneme is a basic unit of a phonology, which is combined with other phonemes to form meaningful units such as words or morphemes.

  • A set of speech sounds that are identified by a native speaker as the same sound

e.g. tar star eight writer

We might think of these as being the ‘same’, but actually they are pronounced quite differently. However, in the phonology of English, they would be represented in the same way à /t/. These articulation differences are important, but the distinction between [t] and, for example [b], and [f] are more important because they distinguish meanings of words such as tar, bar, far.

PHONES: general term for speech sounds.

ALLOPHONES: the different speech sounds of a phoneme are called allophones.

Let’s look at some examples of phonemes and allophones.

[ph] and [p] are the allophones of the same phoneme /p/ in English:

/p/ à phoneme

[ph] [p] à allophones

paper’ ‘spill’

The ‘p’ in ‘paper’ is normally pronounced with aspiration. The ‘p’ in ‘spill’ is normally not aspirated.

A minimal pair is a pair of words that:

- have different meanings

- are pronounced the same except for one sound

Examples: [teɪk] vs. [teɪp] "take" vs. "tape“

[tim] vs. [dim] "team" vs. "deem“

Phonotactics is the permitted arrangement of sounds.



big, rig, fig, dig, wig, lig, vig

How do we know that ‘lig’ and ‘vig’ could be viewed as possible words in English? Our phonological knowledge of the pattern of sounds in English words.

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. In the commonly used graphic representation of the syllabic structure of words and wordforms every vowel sound is represented by the capital letter V and every non-syllabic consonant sound by the capital letter C.

Phonemic syllables: [‘mei-kә], [‘ei-ljәn]

Orthographic syllable: Mak-er, Rang-ing, Do-ing

There are two functions of syllable:

The first is constitutive function. It lies in its ability to be a part of a word itself. The syllables form language units of greater magnitude that is words, morphemes, and utterances.

The other function is distinctive one. In this respect the syllable is characterized by its ability to differentiate words and word-forms. It can be illustrated by many examples: an aim - a name; an ice house - a nice house, etc. Sometimes the difference in syllable division may be the basic ground for differentiation in such pairs as I saw her rise.- I saw her eyes; I saw the meat — I saw them eat.

Stress is the extra muscular activity or force that is exerted on either the syllable of a word or the entire word. It is not every word of a sentence that is stressed in the English language. Those words or syllables of a word that are stressed are usually more prominent than others. Generally, nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and relative pronouns are stressed in a sentence. Personal pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions, and articles on the other hand are not stressed. It should be noted that, when we stress the syllable of a word, or the entire word we perceived that the syllable or the word is louder and longer compared to the unstressed word or syllable around it. There are three different types of stress in English which can be assigned to either disyllabic or multisyllabic words.

1. PRIMARY OR NUCLEAR STRESS.

This is marked by a high upright line placed on the syllable that is considered louder and longer than the others.

2. SECONDARY STRESS.

This is marked by a low upright line on the next syllable that we consider equally loud and long but not as loud and long as the one that attracts the primary stress.

3. TERTIARY STRESS.

This is assigned to less prominent syllables or words.

Example: ,eco’nomic

,responsi’bility

In the two words above, the secondary stress comes in the first syllable, while the primary or main stress for economic comes in the second syllable from the left. That of responsibility comes in the third syllable from the right.

We have different methods of stress assignment on disyllabic and multisyllabic words. Generally, disyllabic nouns are stressed on the first syllable while disyllabic verbs are stressed on the last syllable. e.g.

Disyllable nouns Disyllable verbs

‘master at’tend

‘teacher be’lieve

‘creator re’turn

‘painter a’buse

‘prayer be‘have

Note that disyllabic adjectives and adverbs may be stressed either at the first or last syllable.

Multisyllabic words may be stressed on any syllable.

We shall consider some simple rules for stress placement based on word endings (suffixes).

‘ate’ stress the first syllable if the word has three or more syllables.

Example: CALculate DEMonstrate MOtivate PENetrate OPerate

‘-ic’ stress the second syllable from the end if a word has three or four syllables.

Example: idioMATic ecoNOmic optiMIStic draMAtic humanIStic hisTORic phoNETics

‘-cal’ stress the third syllable from the end if the word has four or five syllables.

Example: demoCRAtical geoMETrical ecoNOMical hisTORical poLITical ilLOgical

‘-ure’ stress the second syllable from the end if the word has three or four syllables.

Example: admixture adVENture

‘-ion’ stress the second syllable from the end if the word has four or five syllables.

Example: satisFACtion exeCUtion elimiNAtion

‘-ation’ stress the second syllable from the end.

Example: adminisTRAtion confedeRAtion consideRAtion co-opeRAtion

‘-ism’ Stress the first syllable (initial stress)

Example: Nationalism MECHanism COMmunism

‘-able’ stress the first syllable from the beginning if the word has four or five syllables.

Example: COMfortable EXEcutable REAsonable CREditable

Вопросы для самоконтроля:

1 The object of phonology. Phoneme and sound. Articulatory setting of English and Russian.

2 The system of English consonants. The system of English vowels. Positional length of vowels.

3 Syllable. Stress.

4 Prosodic system of the English language. Pitch movement. Diapason. Pitch range. Loudness. Tempo. Pausation. Paralinguistic features.

Рекомендуемая литература:

1. М.А. Соколова, Тихонова и др. Теоретическая фонетика английского языка. М., 1980.

2. В.А. Васильев и др. English Phonetics, a Theoretical Course. М., 1980

3. Леонтьева С.Ф. Теоретическая фонетика английского языка. М., 1978.

4. Борисова А.В. Теоретическая фонетика. Минск, 1980.

5. В.А. Васильев и др. English Intonation. М., 1980.
Лекция 2. Lexicology. Lexical morphology.

Содержание лекционного занятия:

1. The object of lexicology. Definition of the term “word”. Definition of the term vocabulary. Theoretical and practical value of English lexicology. Types of lexical units.

2. Principles of morphological analysis. Item-and-arrangement approach. Item- and-process approach.

3. Morphological structure of an English word. Morpheme. Types of morphemes. Root-morphemes and affixes. Derivational and functional affixes. Productivity. Classification of suffixes (nominal, adjectival, verbal, adverbial). Classification of prefixes.

4. Composition. Types of compound words. The problem of “stone wall”. Derivational compounds.



5. Shortening of English words. Blending. Graphical abbreviation. Acronyms.

Содержание лекции:

The term “lexicology” is of Greek origin ( from “lexis” – “word” and ‘logos” - “science”). Lexicology is the part of linguistics which deals with the vocabulary and characteristic features of words and word-groups. Lexicology can study the development of the vocabulary, the origin of words and word-groups, their semantic relations and the development of their sound form and meaning. Phraseology is the branch of lexicology specializing in word-groups. Those are characterized by stability of structure and transferred meaning. The word is a speech unit used for the purposes of human communication, materially representing a group of sounds, possessing a meaning, susceptible to grammatical employment and characterized by formal and semantic unity. The internal structure of the word or its meaning, nowadays commonly referred to as the word’s semantic structure. This is certainly the word’s main aspect. The area of lexicology specializing in the semantic studies of the word is called semantics. Semantics is the study of meaning. There are two principal approaches in linguistic science to the study of language material, namely the synchronic (Gr. syn — ‘together, with’ and chronos — ‘time’) and the diachronic (Gr. dia — ‘through’) approach. With regard to Special Lexicology the synchronic approach is concerned with the vocabulary of a language as it exists at a given time, for instance, at the present time. It is special Desсriptive Lexicology that deals with the vocabulary and vocabulary units of a particular language at a certain time. The diachronic approach in terms of Special Lexicology deals with the changes and the development of vocabulary in the course of time. It is special Historical Lexicology that deals with the evolution of the vocabulary units of a language as time goes by. An English Historical Lexicology would be concerned, therefore, with the origin of English vocabulary units, their change and development, the linguistic factors modifying their structure, meaning and usage within the history of the English language.

The morpheme is the smallest meaningful language unit. Morphemes are subdivided into roots and affixes. The root-morpheme is the lexical nucleus of a word and a common part of a word-building cluster. Affixes are classified into prefixes, suffixes and infixes. An affix usually is a morpheme that cannot stand alone. According to their function and meaning affixational morphemes are subdivided into: grammatical affixes, serving to form new grammatical forms of the same word and derivational, building new words. Structurally morphemes fall into free and bound. Free morpheme: a morpheme that can stand alone as a word without another morpheme.  It does not need anything attached to it to make a word. Cat is a free morpheme. Bound morpheme: a sound or a combination of sounds that cannot stand alone as a word.  The s in cats is a bound morpheme, and it does not have any meaning without the free morpheme cat. Bound morphemes can be further classified as derivational or inflectional. Inflectional morpheme: this morpheme can only be a suffix.  The s in cats is an inflectional morpheme.  An inflectional morpheme creates a change in the function of the word. Example: the d in invited indicates past tense. English has only seven inflectional morphemes:  -s (plural) and -s (possessive) are noun inflections; -s ( 3rd-person singular), -ed ( past tense), -en (past participle), and -ing ( present participle) are verb inflections;  -er (comparative) and -est (superlative) are adjective and adverb inflections. Derivational morpheme: this type of morpheme changes the meaning of the word or the part of speech or both.  Derivational morphemes often create new words.  Example: the prefix and derivational morpheme un added to invited changes the meaning of the word. Allomorphs: different phonetic forms or variations of a morpheme.  Example: The final morphemes in the following words are pronounced differently, but they all indicate plurality: dogs, cats, and horses. Homonyms: morphemes that are spelled the same but have different meanings.  Examples:  bear (an animal) and bear (to carry),  plain (simple) and plain ( a level area of land). Homophones: morphemes that sound alike but have different meanings and spellings.  Examples: bear, bare; plain, plane; cite, sight, site.

Affixation is one of the most productive ways of word-building throughout the history of English. It consists in adding an affix to the stem of a definite part of speech. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation. The main function of suffixes in Modern English is to form one part of speech from another, the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. ( e.g. «educate» is a verb, «education» is a noun);

Prefixation is the formation of words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. The main function of prefixes in English is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech.

Inflexion is the way language modifies word forms to handle grammatical relations and relational categories such as tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender. The main function of inflexion is to show the relationship of words in the sentence.

Ways of word-building: productive and non-productive

Productive:

Affixation is one of the most productive ways of word-building throughout the history of English, which consists in adding an affix to the stem of a definite part of speech.

Composition is the way of word-building when a word is formed by joining two or more stems to form one word. E. g., blackbird, bedroom, music-lover, newcomer, freshman, etc.

Conversion consists of making a new word from some existing word by changing the category of a part of speech, the morphemic shape of the original word remaining unchanged. E. g., a nurse – to nurse, love - to love, a face – to face, etc.

Abbreviation of words consists in clipping a part of a word. As a result we get a new lexical unit where either the lexical meaning or the style is different from the full form of the word.

Non-productive:

Sound interchange is the way of word-building when some sounds are changed to form a new word. E.g. bath - to bathe, life - to live, etc.

Stress interchange can be mostly met in verbs and nouns of Romanic origin: nouns have the stress on the first syllable and verbs on the last syllable, e.g. dis`count - `discount

Sound imitation is the way of word-building when a word is formed by imitating different sounds. E. g. to moo, to bark, etc.

Blends are words formed from a word-group or two synonyms.

Back formation is the way of word-building when a word is formed by dropping the final morpheme to form a new word. E. g., to accredit (from accreditation), to bach (from bachelor), to collocate (from collocation), to emote (from emotion).

Вопросы для самоконтроля:

1. The object of lexicology. Definition of the term “word”. Definition of the term vocabulary. Theoretical and practical value of English lexicology. Types of lexical units.

2. Principles of morphological analysis. Item-and-arrangement approach. Item- and-process approach.

3. Morphological structure of an English word. Morpheme. Types of morphemes. Root-morphemes and affixes. Derivational and functional affixes. Productivity. Classification of suffixes (nominal, adjectival, verbal, adverbial). Classification of prefixes.

4. Composition. Types of compound words. The problem of “stone wall”. Derivational compounds.

5. Shortening of English words. Blending. Graphical abbreviation. Acronyms.

Рекомендуемая литература:

1. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В. Лексикология английского языка. М., Изд-во дом 1999

2. Гинзбург Р.З., Хидекель С.С. A course in Modern English Lexicology. М., 1978

3. Зыкова И.В. Практикум по лексикологии английского языка. М., 2006.

4. Гринберг С.И.., Кузнецова М. Exercises in Modern English lexicology. М.,1960.

5. Кащеева М.А. Practical lexicology. М., 1974.

6. Гак В.Г. Сопоставительная лексикология. М., 1977.

7. Калимова Ж.У. Методические указания по лексикологии английского языка. Семипалатинский университет - 2001

8. Калимова Ж.У. Учебно-методисеское пособие по лексикологии английского язык, Семипалатинск - 2002
Лекция 3. Polysemy and homonymy.

Содержание лекционного занятия:

1. Introduction. Definition of the term "polysemy". Definition of the term "homonymy". The problem of discrimination of polysemy and homonymy.

  1. 2. Classification of homonyms (homonyms proper, homophones, homographs).

  2. 3. The origin of homonyms. Etymological homonymy. Homonymy as "the next step in polysemy". The criteria used to distinguish homonymy and polysemy.

4. The semantic structure of a polysemantic word (V.V. Vinogradov).

Содержание лекции:

Polysemy. Polysemy is a phenomenon which has an exceptional importance for the description of a language system and for the solution of practical tasks connected with an adequate understanding of the meaning of a word and its use.

A word may have several meanings. Then it is called a polysemantic word. Words having only one meaning are called monosemantic. Monosemantic words are few in number. These are mainly scientific terms. The bulk of English words are polysemantic.

A great contribution to the development of the problem of polysemy was made by the Russian linguist V.V. Vinigradov. The scientist admitted the importance of differentiating the meaning from the usage (a contextual variant). Meanings are fixed and common to all people, who know the language system. The usage is only a possible application of one of the meanings of a polysemantic word, sometimes very individual, sometimes more or less familiar. Meaning is not identical with usage.

Of special importance is the fact that polysemy exist only in language, not in speech. The meaning of a word in speech is contextual. Polysemy does not interfere with the communicative function of a language because in every particular case the situation or context, i.e. the environment of the word, cancels all the unnecessary meanings and makes speech unambiguous.

A further development of V.V.Vinogradov’s theory was A.I. Smirnitsky’s work in the linguistic field under consideration. According to this scholar all the meanings of the word form identity (тождество) supported by the form of the word. A.I. Smirnitsky introduced the term ‘a lexico-semantic variant’ (LSV). A lexico-semantic variant is a two-facet unit, the formal facet of which is the sound-form of a word, while the content-facet is one of the meanings of the given word, i.e. the designation (обозначение) of a certain class of objects. Words with one meaning are represented in the language system by one LSV, polysemantic words – by a number of LSVs.

All lexico-semantic variants of a word form a homogeneous semantic structure ensuring the semantic unity of the given word. All LSVs are united together by a certain meaning – the semantic pivot of the word called the semantic center of the word. Thus, the semantic center of the word is the part of meaning which remains constant in all the lexico-semantic variants of the word.



Diachronic and synchronic approaches to polysemy. The problem of polysemy is the problem of the interrelation and interdependence of the various meanings in the semantic structure of the same word. If viewed diachronically polysemy is understood as a change in the semantic structure of the word. Polysemy in diachronic terms implies that a word may retain its previous meaning or meanings and at the same time acquire one or several new ones. Thus, according to the diachronic approach in the semantic structure of a word two types of meaning can be singled out: the primary meaning and the secondary meaning. The polysemantic word table, for example, has at least nine meanings in Modern English. In the course of the diachronic semantic analysis it is found that of all the meanings this word has in ModE the primary meaning of ‘a flat slab of stone or wood’ which is proper to the word in the OE period. All other meanings are secondary as they are derived from the primary meaning.

The terms secondary and derived meaning are to some extent synonymous. The term secondary implies that the meaning could not have appeared before the primary meaning existed. When we use the term derived we imply not only that, but that it is dependent on the primary meaning as well and somehow subordinate to it. For example the meaning of the word table 'the food put on the table' is secondary and is derived from the meaning 'a piece of furniture'.

Semantic changes result as a rule in new meanings which are added to the ones already existing in the semantic structure of the word. Some of the old meanings may become obsolete or even disappear but the bulk of English words tend to an increase in the number of meanings.

Synchronically polysemy is understood as the co-existence of various meanings of the same word at a certain historical period of the development of the English language. In the course of synchronic analysis of the word table following question arises: do all the nine meanings of the word table equally represent the semantic structure of this word? The meaning that first occurs to us whenever we hear or see the word table is ‘an article of furniture’. This emerges as the central (or basic) meaning of the word, and all other meanings are marginal (or minor) meanings. The central meaning occurs in various and widely different contexts, marginal meanings are observed only in certain contexts.

There is a tendency in modern linguistics to interpret the concept of the central meaning in terms of the frequency of occurrence in speech. For example the meaning 'a piece of furniture' of the word table possesses the highest frequency and makes up to 52% of all the uses of the word.

There is also the stylistic stratification (наслоение) in a polysemantic word as individual meanings may differ in their stylistic reference. For example there is nothing colloquial or slangy or American in the word jerk in the meaning 'a sudden movement or stopping of movement'. But when it is used in the meaning of 'a bad person' it is both slang and American. Stylistically neutral meanings are more frequent.

The words of different languages which are similar or identical in lexical meaning are termed correlated. The semantic structure of correlated polysemantic words can never be identical. For example compare the word table in English and the word стол in Russian. We can see that only the central meaning, i.e. 'a piece of furniture' is identical.



Polysemy and context. Types of context. The term context denotes the minimal stretch of speech determining each individual meaning of the word. Contexts may be of two types: linguistic (verbal) and extra-linguistic (non-verbal).

Linguistic contexts may be subdivided into lexical and grammatical.

In Lexical contexts of primary importance are the groups of lexical items combined with the polysemantic word under consideration. It can be illustrated by the results of the analysis of different lexical contexts in which a polysemantic word is used. For example the adjective heavy used with the words load, table means “of great weight”. When combined with the words denoting natural phenomena such as rain, storm, snow, wind the adjective heavy is understood as denoting ‘abundant, striking, falling with force’. If used with words industry, artillery, arms and the like, heavy has the meaning ‘the larger kind of something’.

It can be easily observed that the main factor in bringing out individual meanings of the adjective heavy is the lexical meaning of the words with which this adjective is combined. Thus, the meanings of heavy may be analyzed through its collocability with the words weight, safe, table; snow, wind; industry, artillery, etc. The meaning at the level of lexical contexts is sometimes described as meaning by collocation.

In grammatical contexts it is the grammatical (mainly syntactic) structure of the context that serves to determine various individual meanings of a polysemantic word. For example the meaning of the verb to make – ‘to force, to induce’ is found only in the grammatical context possessing the syntactic structure to make +prn+verb (to make smb laugh, to make smb work, to make smb sit). Another meaning of this verb – ‘to become’ is observed in the context of a different syntactic structure – to make+adj+noun (to make a good wife, to make a good teacher). Such meanings are sometimes described as grammatically or structurally bound meanings.

There are cases when the meaning of a word is ultimately determined by the actual speech situation in which the word is used, i.e. by the extra-linguistic context (or context of situation). In the sentence The bill is large, the meaning of the word bill is clearly ambiguous as it has two “readings” resulting from the two meanings of the word bill. The sentence can be “disambiguated”, i.e. one or the other of its two readings can be established if it is extended with… but need not be paid. This extension is, of course, possible, only with one of the meanings of the word bill. The noun ring in ‘to give smb a ring’ may possess the meaning “a circlet of precious metal’ or ‘a call on the telephone’ depending on the situation in which the word is used. Another example is the word glasses in the sentence: John was looking for the glasses. This is ambiguous because it might refer to ‘spectacles’ or to ‘drinking vessels’. So, it is possible to state the meaning of the word glasses only through the extended context or situation.



Homonymy. Classification of homonyms.

Two or more words identical in sound-form, spelling but different in meaning, distribution and in many cases in origin are called homonyms. The term is derived from Greek homos – similar and onoma - "name" and thus expresses the sameness of the word combined with the difference in meaning.

Modern English is very rich in homonymous words and word-forms. It is sometimes suggested that the abundance of homonyms in Modern English is to be accounted for by the monosyllabic structure of the commonly used English words. From the viewpoint of their morphological structure, they are mostly one-morpheme words.

The most widely accepted classification of homonyms is that recognizing homonyms proper, homophones and homographs.



Homonyms proper are distinct words identical in pronunciation and spelling. Some of the examples are: back (n.), back (adv.), back(v.); ball (n) - "a round object used in games"- ball(n) - "a gathering of people for dancing". The important point is that the term homonym serves to denote not different meanings within one word but different words having different meanings.

Homophones are words of the same pronunciation but of different spelling and meaning: air - heir; buy- by; piece - peace; steel - steal and many others.

Homographs are words different in pronunciation and meaning but identical in spelling: bow [bou] - bow [bau]; lead [li:d] - lead [led]; row [rou] - row [rau] and so on.

When analyzing different cases of homonymy we find that some words are homonymous in all their forms, i.e. we observe full homonymy. For example in seal1 - a sea animal and seal2 — a design printed on paper by means of a stamp. The paradigm 'seal - seal's - seals - seals' is identical to both of them and doesn't indicate which word is analyzed. In other cases for example seal' - a sea animal and to seal3 - to close tightly we see that though some individual forms are homonymous the whole paradigm is not identical: 'seal - seal's - seals - seals' for a noun and 'seal - seals - sealed - sealing' for a verb. In such case we can speak of homonymous word-forms or of partial homonymy. Thus all cases of homonymy may be divided into full and partial homonymy. The bulk of full homonyms is to be found within the same part of speech.

Homonyms may also be classified by the type of meaning into lexical, lexico-grammatical and grammatical. In seal1 and seal2 for example the part-of-speech meaning and the grammatical meanings of all their forms are identical. The difference is in lexical meaning only. So we can say that seal and seal are lexical homonyms.

If we compare seal1 and seal3 we find the difference not only in lexical meaning but a difference in their grammatical meanings as well. Identical sound-forms, i.e. seals [si: Iz] (Common Case Plural of the noun) and (he) seals [si: lz] (third person Singular of the verb) possess different grammatical meanings. As both grammatical and lexical meanings differ we describe these homonymous word-forms as lexico-grammatical. Lexico-grammatical homonymy implies that the homonyms belong to different parts of speech. However there are cases when this type of homonymy is observed within the same part of speech, for example the verbs find and found, where the homonymous word-forms are found- Past Indefinite of find sad found- Present Indefinite of found.

Modern English is very rich in homonymous word-forms differing in grammatical meaning only. In the paradigms of the majority of verbs the form of the Past Indefinite is homonymous with the form of Participle II, for example asked — asked. In the paradigms of nouns we usually find homonymous forms of the Possessive Case Singular and the Common Case Plural, for example son's - sons. It may be seen that grammatical homonymy is the homonymy of different word-forms of the same word.

Polysemy may also arise from homonymy. When two words become identical in sound-form, the meanings of them are felt as making up one semantic structure. For example the human ear and the ear of the needle are homonyms from the diachronical point of view. One is etymologically related to L. auris, the other to L. acus, aceris. Synchronically they are perceived as two meanings of the same word.

Вопросы для самоконтроля:

1. Introduction. Definition of the term "polysemy". Definition of the term "homonymy". The problem of discrimination of polysemy and homonymy.



  1. 2. Classification of homonyms (homonyms proper, homophones, homographs).

  2. 3. The origin of homonyms. Etymological homonymy. Homonymy as "the next step in polysemy". The criteria used to distinguish homonymy and polysemy.

4. The semantic structure of a polysemantic word

Рекомендуемая литература:

1. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В. Лексикология английского языка. М., Изд-во дом 1999

2. Гинзбург Р.З., Хидекель С.С. A course in Modern English Lexicology. М., 1978

3. Зыкова И.В. Практикум по лексикологии английского языка. М., 2006.

4. Гринберг С.И.., Кузнецова М. Exercises in Modern English lexicology. М.,1960.

5. Кащеева М.А. Practical lexicology. М., 1974.

6. Гак В.Г. Сопоставительная лексикология. М., 1977.

7. Калимова Ж.У. Методические указания по лексикологии английского языка. Семипалатинский университет - 2001

8. Калимова Ж.У. Учебно-методисеское пособие по лексикологии английского язык, Семипалатинск - 2002


Лекция 4. Synonymy and poronymy.

Содержание лекционного занятия:

1. Introduction. Definition of synonymy. Synonymic dominant.

2. Types of synonyms. Peculiarities of usage. Contextual and total synonyms.

3. Sources of synonymy.

4. Synonymic pairs and synonymic condensation.

5. Paronymy. Definition of paronyms.

6. The concept of “paronymic attraction”. Malapropisms. Folk etymology. Puns. Paronymic attraction in various registers.

Содержание лекции:

Вопросы для самоконтроля:

1. Definition of synonymy. Synonymic dominant.

2. Types of synonyms. Peculiarities of usage. Contextual and total synonyms.

3. Sources of synonymy.

4. Synonymic pairs and synonymic condensation.

5. Paronymy. Definition of paronyms.

6. The concept of “paronymic attraction”. Malapropisms. Folk etymology. Puns. Paronymic attraction in various registers.

Рекомендуемая литература:

1. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В. Лексикология английского языка. М., Изд-во дом 1999

2. Гинзбург Р.З., Хидекель С.С. A course in Modern English Lexicology. М., 1978

3. Зыкова И.В. Практикум по лексикологии английского языка. М., 2006.

4. Гринберг С.И.., Кузнецова М. Exercises in Modern English lexicology. М.,1960.

5. Кащеева М.А. Practical lexicology. М., 1974.

6. Гак В.Г. Сопоставительная лексикология. М., 1977.

7. Калимова Ж.У. Методические указания по лексикологии английского языка. Семипалатинский университет - 2001

8. Калимова Ж.У. Учебно-методисеское пособие по лексикологии английского язык, Семипалатинск - 2002

Лекция 5. Phraseology.

Содержание лекционного занятия:



  1. Definition of phraseology. Word-combination in terms of the dialectical unity of collocation and colligation. Productivity and the concept of freedom of word-combination. Linguistic and extralinguistic constraints imposed on collocability of words.

  2. Free word-combinations. Collocations. Phraseological units. Idioms proper. Proverbs and sayings.

Phrasal verbs. Structure and meaning of phrasal verbs. Nominalized forms.

Содержание лекции:


Вопросы для самоконтроля:

1. Definition of phraseology. Word-combination in terms of the dialectical unity of collocation and colligation. Productivity and the concept of freedom of word-combination. Linguistic and extralinguistic constraints imposed on collocability of words.

2. Free word-combinations. Collocations. Phraseological units. Idioms proper. Proverbs and sayings.

Phrasal verbs. Structure and meaning of phrasal verbs. Nominalized forms.

Рекомендуемая литература:

1. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В. Лексикология английского языка. М., Изд-во дом 1999

2. Гинзбург Р.З., Хидекель С.С. A course in Modern English Lexicology. М., 1978

3. Зыкова И.В. Практикум по лексикологии английского языка. М., 2006.

4. Гринберг С.И.., Кузнецова М. Exercises in Modern English lexicology. М.,1960.

5. Кащеева М.А. Practical lexicology. М., 1974.

6. Гак В.Г. Сопоставительная лексикология. М., 1977.

7. Калимова Ж.У. Методические указания по лексикологии английского языка. Семипалатинский университет - 2001

8. Калимова Ж.У. Учебно-методисеское пособие по лексикологии английского язык, Семипалатинск - 2002
Лекция 6. Terms and terminology.

Содержание лекционного занятия:



  1. Lexical stratification of scientific texts. Words of general language. General scientific words. Terms.

  2. The difference between terms and the words of general English. The criterion of definability. Definition as part of every term.

  3. The sources of term formation. Different types of borrowing.

  4. Terminology as a semiotic system. Systems of social terms.

5. Classification of terminological word-combinations.

Содержание лекции:


Вопросы для самоконтроля:

1. Lexical stratification of scientific texts. Words of general language. General scientific words. Terms.

2. The difference between terms and the words of general English. The criterion of definability. Definition as part of every term.

3. The sources of term formation. Different types of borrowing.

4. Terminology as a semiotic system. Systems of social terms.

5. Classification of terminological word-combinations.

Рекомендуемая литература:

1. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В. Лексикология английского языка. М., Изд-во дом 1999

2. Гинзбург Р.З., Хидекель С.С. A course in Modern English Lexicology. М., 1978

3. Зыкова И.В. Практикум по лексикологии английского языка. М., 2006.

4. Гринберг С.И.., Кузнецова М. Exercises in Modern English lexicology. М.,1960.

5. Кащеева М.А. Practical lexicology. М., 1974.

6. Гак В.Г. Сопоставительная лексикология. М., 1977.

7. Калимова Ж.У. Методические указания по лексикологии английского языка. Семипалатинский университет - 2001

8. Калимова Ж.У. Учебно-методисеское пособие по лексикологии английского язык, Семипалатинск - 2002
Лекция 7. Monolingual learner’s dictionaries of English.

Содержание лекционного занятия:



  1. Learner’s lexicography in Great Britain. The difference between learner’s dictionaries and dictionaries for native speakers of English. The most popular learner’s monolingual dictionaries of English published in Great Britain.

  2. Macrostructure of the dictionary. Guide to the dictionary. Word-list. Study pages. Index. Supplements.

  3. Microstructure of the dictionary. Entry. Head-word. Transcription. Word class. Definition. Grammatical information in learners’ dictionaries. Stylistic labels. Phraseological units. Derivatives. Compounds. Usage notes. Cross references.

4. Advantages and disadvantages of authentic examples and examples made up by lexicographers.

Содержание лекции:


Вопросы для самоконтроля:

1. Learner’s lexicography in Great Britain. The difference between learner’s dictionaries and dictionaries for native speakers of English. The most popular learner’s monolingual dictionaries of English published in Great Britain.

2. Macrostructure of the dictionary. Guide to the dictionary. Word-list. Study pages. Index. Supplements.

3. Microstructure of the dictionary. Entry. Head-word. Transcription. Word class. Definition. Grammatical information in learners’ dictionaries. Stylistic labels. Phraseological units. Derivatives. Compounds. Usage notes. Cross references.

4. Advantages and disadvantages of authentic examples and examples made up by lexicographers.

Рекомендуемая литература:

1. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В. Лексикология английского языка. М., Изд-во дом 1999

2. Гинзбург Р.З., Хидекель С.С. A course in Modern English Lexicology. М., 1978

3. Зыкова И.В. Практикум по лексикологии английского языка. М., 2006.

4. Гринберг С.И.., Кузнецова М. Exercises in Modern English lexicology. М.,1960.

5. Кащеева М.А. Practical lexicology. М., 1974.

6. Гак В.Г. Сопоставительная лексикология. М., 1977.

7. Калимова Ж.У. Методические указания по лексикологии английского языка. Семипалатинский университет - 2001

8. Калимова Ж.У. Учебно-методисеское пособие по лексикологии английского язык, Семипалатинск - 2002


Лекция 8. Bilingual lexicography.

Содержание лекционного занятия:




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