Практикум по английскому языку: учебное пособие / О. В. Гаврилова; Бузулукский гуманитарно-технолог ин-т (филиал) огу. Бузулук, 2013 - shikardos.ru o_O
Главная
Поиск по ключевым словам:
Похожие работы
Название работы Кол-во страниц Размер
Практикум по стилистике английского языка: учебное пособие / О. 5 1432.97kb.
Учебное пособие для студентов отделения Лечебное Дело, Сестринское... 1 312.29kb.
Учебное пособие по английскому языку Краснодар 2007 81. 2 Англ. 3 1048.93kb.
Учебное пособие для слушателей интенсивный курс обучения английскому... 2 784.05kb.
Учебное пособие для студентов, практикум для студентов 1 12.36kb.
Учебное пособие по мировой художественной культуре содержит тексты... 1 321.48kb.
Учебное пособие по мировой художественной культуре содержит тексты... 1 319.46kb.
Учебное пособие по мировой художественной культуре содержит тексты... 1 313.98kb.
Учебное пособие по мировой художественной культуре содержит тексты... 1 320.79kb.
Методическое пособие по русскому языку для работы на уроках русского... 2 461.12kb.
Контрольная работа №2 по английскому языку 11 класс Инструкция по... 1 102.79kb.
- 1 211.23kb.
- 4 1234.94kb.
Практикум по английскому языку: учебное пособие / О. В. Гаврилова; Бузулукский гуманитарно-технолог - страница №2/6


THE EDUCATION OF GIFTED CHILDREN
Ex. I. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

In theory there are two ways of educating children who are intellectually more advanced than their peers: (l) acceleration, whereby the gifted child is promoted more rapidly through the ordinary classes; (2) enrichment, whereby he works through the usual classes at the usual pace but the curriculum is supplemented by a variety of cultural activities.

Special schools or classes enable the gifted child to develop at his own accelerated pace. The instruction, method, and materials must be adapted to the needs of each individual, and, working with others who are quick and bright, each child is encouraged to put forth his best effort. Special schooling has also provoked a number of criticisms.

The segregation of children in special schools tends to create an intellectual aristocracy that is quite as objectionable as an aristocracy based on birth, wealth, or political power. Existing methods of selection are imperfect, and since the majority of the gifted are discovered in the higher economic classes, this segregation also exaggerates class distinctions.

Education of gifted children – обучение одарённых детей; educate -обучать; давать образование; peer - равный; acceleration - ускорение; accelerate - ускорять; whereby – посредством чего; promote - продвигать; enrichment -обогащение; pace - скорость, темп; curriculum – курс обучения, учебный план; supplement - пополнять; variety - разнообразие; instruction - обучение; method -метод, способ; adapt - приспосабливать; bright -способный, смышленый; put forth best effort – приложить максимальные усилия; provoke - провоцировать; criticism - критика; критическое замечание; segregation - выделение, изоляция; objectionable –вызывающий возражения; quite [kwait] - вполне; imperfect - несовершенный; majority - большинство; higher economic classes – обеспеченные слои общества; exaggerate – излишне подчеркивать; class distinctions – отличие класса от класса.

1) What is the first way of educating gifted children? 2)What is the second way of educating gifted children? 3) Special schools or classes enable the gifted child to develop at his own accelerated pace, don't they? 4) Must the instruction, method, and materials in special schools be adapted to the needs of each individual? 5) Is each gifted child encouraged to put forth his best effort? 6) What does the segregation of children in special schools tend to create? 7) What segregation exaggerates class distinctions?


Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) The first way of educating gifted children is testing. 2) By acceleration, the gifted child passes more quickly through the ordinary classes. 3) The second way of educating gifted children is programmed learning. 4) By enrichment, the curriculum for the gifted child is improved. 5) Special schools or classes enable the gifted child to measure his skill, ability, or knowledge. 6) The instruction in special schools must be adjusted to the needs of each individual. 7) In special classes, each gifted child is discouraged to launch his best effort. 8) The practice of keeping children of different skill, ability, or knowledge apart creates an intellectual aristocracy. 9) An intellectual aristocracy differs greatly from an aristocracy based on birth, wealth, or political power.


Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) The first way is of educating gifted children acceleration. 2) By acceleration, the gifted child more rapidly through the ordinary classes is promoted. 3) The second way is of educating gifted children enrichment. 4) By enrichment, the gifted child through the usual classes at the usual pace but the curriculum is supplemented by a variety of cultural activities works. 5) Special schools or classes the gifted child to develop at his own accelerated pace enable. 6) The instruction, method, and materials in special schools or classes to the needs of each individual must be adapted. 7) In special schools or classes, each gifted child to put forth his best effort is encouraged. 8) The segregation of children in special schools an intellectual aristocracy tends to create. 9) An intellectual is aristocracy as objectionable as an aristocracy based on birth, wealth, or political power. 10) The fact that the majority of the gifted in the higher economic classes, also exaggerates class distinctions are discovered.


Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Критическое замечание; сегрегация; вызывающий возражения; несовершенный; обеспеченные слои общества; излишне подчеркивать; отличие класса от класса; интеллектуальная аристократия; обучение одарённых детей; давать образование; ускорение; обогащение; темп; учебный план; обучение; метод; приспосабливать; смышленый; приложить максимальные усилия; провоцировать.

Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) The first way of educating gifted children is ... 2) By acceleration, the gifted child is promoted more rapidly through ... 3) The second way of educating gifted children is ... 4) By enrichment, the gifted child works through ... 5) Special schools or classes enable the gifted child ... 6) The instruction, method, and materials in special schools or classes must be adapted to ... 7) In special schools or classes, each gifted child is encouraged ... 8) The segregation of children in special schools tends to create ... 9) An intellectual aristocracy is as objectionable as ... 10) ... also exaggerates class distinctions.


Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) the first way of educating gifted children; b) the second way of educating gifted children; c) the segregation of children in special schools.
Ex. VII. Retell the text THE EDUCATION OF GIFTED CHILDREN.
3.5 THE EDUCATION OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN
Ex. I. Scan the text Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

Mental retardation is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning and impaired adaptive behaviour. Care and treatment of the retarded in the past was mainly custodial. Nowadays psychologists pay much attention to parent education, special schooling, vocational training, and sheltered workshops. Many retarded persons have proved capable of becoming nearly independent and productive members of society, although in most cases specialized training and continuing guidance services are necessary to aid adjustment. Residential care is often a necessity for those retarded children who need constant attention. Psychologists believe the best kind of residential care is that most closely resembling family life. For many school-agers, special education is one of the most important means to self-sufficiency. Psychologists believe the best treatment for subnormal intellectual functioning and impaired adaptive behaviour is the integration of children from the special-education classes with those in the normal-education classes.

Mentally retarded children – умственно отсталые дети; mental retardation – задержка в умственном развитии; subnormal intellectual functioning – пониженный уровень функционирования интеллекта; impaired adaptive behaviour – замедленное адаптивное поведение; care and treatment of the retarded – уход и лечение ребенка, отстающего в развитии; custodial – связанный с изоляцией; sheltered workshop – мастерская для детей с умственными отклонениями или физическими недостатками; productive - производящий; продуктивный; adjustment приспособление; residential care – попечение по месту жительства; self-sufficiency - независимость, самостоятельность; самообеспеченность; adjustment to the surroundings – адаптация к окружающим условиям; syndrome - синдром, совокупность симптомов; meningitis - менингит; metabolic disease – нарушение обмена веществ; malnutrition - недоедание, неправильное питание._

1) What is mental retardation characterized by? 2) What was care and treatment of the retarded in the past? 3) What do psychologists pay much attention to nowadays? 4) What have many retarded persons proved capable of? 5) Whom is residential care often a necessity for? 6) What is the best kind of residential care? 7) What is one of the most important means to self-sufficiency? 8) What is the best treatment for subnormal intellectual functioning and impaired adaptive behaviour?


Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Mental retardation is manifested by abnormal development, learning difficulties, and problems in social adjustment. 2) Care of the retarded in the past was connected with the custody of the retarded. 3) Nowadays psychologists pay no attention to parent education. 4) Retarded persons are not capable of becoming fully independent members of society. 5) Specialized training will not help retarded children to adapt to the surroundings. 6) Residential care is a system of professional care for people who are too old or ill to look after themselves at home. 7) Psychologists believe the best kind of residential care is that most closely resembling day-to-day life. 8) For retarded children, special education is to provide all the things they need without help from outside. 9) The integration of children from the special-education classes with those in the normal-education classes is vitally important. 10) Mental retardation can be caused by Down's syndrome, meningitis, metabolic diseases, poisoning from radiation, and malnutrition. 11) Down's syndrome is a condition that someone is born with, that stops them from developing in a normal way, both mentally and physically.


Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) Mental retardation subnormal intellectual functioning and impaired adaptive behaviour is characterized by. 2) Care was and treatment of the retarded in the past mainly custodial. 3) Nowadays pay psychologists much attention to parent education, special schooling, vocational training, and sheltered workshops. 4) Many retarded persons capable of becoming nearly independent and productive members of society prove. 5) Specialized training and continuing guidance services necessary for retarded children to make adjustment to the surroundings are. 6) Residential is care often a necessity for those retarded children who need constant attention. 7) Psychologists the best kind of residential care is that most closely resembling family life believe. 8) For many retarded children, special education one of the most important means to self-sufficiency is. 9) The best treatment for subnormal intellectual functioning and impaired adaptive behaviour the integration of children from the special-education classes with those in the normal-education classes is.


Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Связанный с изоляцией; мастерская для детей с умственными отклонениями или физическими недостатками; попечение по месту жительства; самообеспеченность; адаптация к окружающим условиям; совокупность симптомов; менингит; нарушение обмена веществ; недоедание; умственно отсталые дети; задержка в умственном развитии; пониженный уровень функционирования интеллекта; замедленное адаптивное поведение; уход и лечение ребенка, отстающего в развитии.


Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) Mental retardation is characterized by ... 2) Care and treatment of the retarded in the past was ... 3) Nowadays psychologists pay much attention to ... 4) Many retarded persons prove capable of ... 5) Specialized training and continuing guidance services are necessary for retarded children to make ... 6) Residential care is often a necessity for ... 7) Psychologists believe the best kind of residential care is ... 8) For retarded children, special education is .v. 9) The best treatment for subnormal intellectual functioning and impaired adaptive behaviour is...


Ex.VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) mental retardation; b) residential care.
Ex. VII. Retell the text THE EDUCATION OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

3.6 PRODIGIES AND IDIOT SAVANTS
Ex. I. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

A prodigy is an extraordinary person, particularly a child, who shows spontaneous early signs of genius or exceptional ability in a specific area. Among these are the arithmetical prodigies, the chess prodigies, and the lightning calculators who have a remarkable memory for figures. Best known are the musical prodigies. For example, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Franz Schubert began to compose before the age of 12. Far less common is precocious ability in writing and painting.

Prodigies should be distinguished from those whose superior achievements result from overtraining rather than talent. They must also be distinguished from so-called idiot savants, whose achievement is confined to a very limited area and who show little understanding of their ability because of average or subnormal intelligence.

Mathematical, musical, artistic, and mechanical abilities have been among the talents demonstrated by idiot savants. Examples include performing rapid mental calculations of huge sums, playing lengthy compositions from memory after a single hearing, arid repairing complex mechanisms without training. About 10% of autistic people are idiot savants; mentally retarded people may also be savants, though the incidence is much lower.

Prodigy – одаренный человек (чаще о ребенке); вундеркинд; idiot savant – умственно отсталый человек, проявляющий незаурядные способности в какой-либо области; «талантливый идиот»; savant - ученый; spontaneous- самопроизвольный (происходящий без какого-либо внешнего воздействия); genius - гений; lightning – с быстротой молнии, молниеносно; compose - сочинять (музыку); precocious – рано развившийся; superior –превосходящий другого; talent - талант; confine -ограничивать; subnormal intelligence – ниже нормального в умственном развитии; perform - выполнять; mental – производимый в уме; lengthy – очень длинный;composition – музыкальное произведение; autistic –страдающий аутизмом; mentally retarded children –умственно отсталые дети; incidence – сфера действия, охват.

1) What is meant by the term "prodigy"? 2) Among prodigies are the arithmetical prodigies, the chess prodigies, and the lightning calculators who have a remarkable memory for figures, aren't they?

3) Best known are the musical prodigies, aren't they? 4) What prodigies begin to compose and give public concerts very early? 5) Far less common is precocious ability in writing and painting, isn't it? 6) Should prodigies be distinguished from those whose superior achievements result from overtraining rather than talent? 7) Must prodigies be distinguished from so-called idiot savants? 8) What area is the achievement of an idiot savant confined to? 9) Why do idiot savants show little understanding of their ability? 10) What talents are demonstrated by idiot savants? 11) Can idiot savants perform rapid mental calculations of huge sums? 12) Can idiot savants play lengthy compositions from memory after a single hearing? 13) Can idiot savants repair complex mechanisms without training? 14) May autistic people be idiot savants? 15) May mentally retarded people be idiot savants?
Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) A prodigy is a young person who is extremely clever or good at , doing something. 2) Among prodigies are the calculators who have a poor memory for figures. 3) Best known are the political prodigies. 4) Musical prodigies usually begin to compose and give public concerts very early. 5) One can scarcely find prodigies in writing and painting. 6) The achievements of prodigies result from overtraining. 7) An idiot savant is a mentally retarded person who possesses some remarkable special aptitude, as for memorization or rapid mental calculation. 8) Autism is a developmental disorder characterized variously by impaired social interaction, difficulties in communicating, problems with seeing and hearing, and repetitive behavior.


Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) A prodigy an extraordinary person, particularly a child, who shows spontaneous early signs of genius or exceptional ability in a specific area is. 2) Among prodigies the arithmetical prodigies, the chess prodigies, and the lightning calculators who have a remarkable memory for figures are. 3) Best known the musical prodigies are. 4) Musical prodigies usually to compose and give public concerts very early begin. 5) Far less common precocious ability in writing and painting is. 6) Prodigies those whose superior achievements result from overtraining rather than talent should be distinguished from. 7) Prodigies so-called idiot savants must be distinguished from. 8) The achievement of an idiot savant a very limited area is confined to. 9) Idiot savants little understanding of their ability because of average or subnormal intelligence show. 10) Mathematical, musical, artistic, and mechanical abilities among the talents demonstrated by idiot savants have been. 11) Idiot savants rapid mental calculations of huge sums can perform. 12) Idiot savants lengthy compositions from memory after a single can play hearing. 13) Idiot savants complex mechanisms without can repair training. 14) Autistic people idiot may be savants. 15) Mentally may be retarded people idiot savants.


Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Гений; с быстротой молнии; рано развившийся; превосходящий другого; талант; ниже нормального в умственном развитии; производимый в уме; страдающий аутизмом; умственно отсталые дети; вундеркинд; умственно отсталый человек, проявляющий незаурядные способности в какой-либо области; ученый; самопроизвольный.

Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) A prodigy is ... 2) Among prodigies are ... 3) Best known are the ... prodigies. 4) Musical prodigies usually begin ... 5) ... is precocious ability in writing and painting. 6) Prodigies should be distinguished from ... 7) The achievement of an idiot savant is confined to ... 8) Idiot savants show little understanding of their ability because of... 9) Idiot savants can perform ... 10) Idiot savants can play ... 11) Idiot savants can repair ... 12) ... people may be idiot savants.


Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) prodigies; b) idiot savants.
Ex. VII. Retell the text PRODIGIES AND IDIOT SA VANTS.
3.7 THE EDUCATION OF PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN
For children with sensory handicaps the evaluation of the problem is made by medical personnel. Speech therapists make a diagnosis for those with speech defects. Children with motor handicaps are sent to special programs upon the results of orthopedic or neurological examination by doctors, with supplementary assessment by psychological and educational diagnosticians.

The education of physically handicapped children - обучение детей, имеющих физические недостатки; sensory - чувствительный; sensory handicaps = the deaf and the blind; personnel - персонал; speech therapist - логопед; diagnosis - диагноз; speech defect - дефект речи; motor - моторный, двигательный; handicap - дефект, уродство; orthopedic - ортопедический; neurological -неврологический; supplementary - дополнительный; psychological - психологический; educational - педагогический; diagnostician -диагност.


THE EDUCATION OF BLIND CHILDREN

Ex. I. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

The blind are educated through the sense of hearing and the sense of touch. Books are prepared in Braille, a code of embossed dots over which the blind person runs his fingers and translates the sequences of dots into meaning—much in the same manner as the average person translates sequences of seen letters into meaning.

The Frenchman Louis Braille, himself blinded at the age of three in an accident, invented the system in 1824. A Braille code for English was not adopted until 1932. Modifications also exist for other languages, for mathematical and technical material, and for musical notation. Mobility training has been developed to the point that it is being widely used to help the blind move about comfortably in their environment by using senses other than vision.

Partially seeing children, on the other hand, are educated primarily through the visual, auditory, and tactile senses, using magnification of their limited sight, training of visual perception, and utilization of various large-type printing.

Blind [blaind] - слепой; five senses - пять чувств (обоняние, осязание, зрение, слух, вкус); sense of smell - обоняние; sense of touch - осязание; (eye)sight, vision - зрение; sense of hearing - слух; sense of taste - вкус; sixth sense - шестое чувство, интуиция (insight, intuition); Braille - шрифт Брайля; a code of embossed dots - код рельефных (выпуклых) точек; sequence -последовательность, ряд; musical notation - нотная запись; partially - частично; visual - зрительный; auditory -слуховой; tactile - осязательный; magnification -увеличение, усиление (при помощи оптики); visual perception -зрительное восприятие; utilization - использование.

I) What senses are the blind educated through? 2) What is meant by the term "Braille"? 3) Who invented Braille? 4) A Braille code for English was adopted in 1932, wasn't it? 5) What do modifications of a Braille code exist for? 6) The blind move about comfortably in their environment by using senses other than vision, don't they? 7) Are partially seeing children educated through the visual, auditory, and tactile senses? 8) Do partially seeing children use magnification of their limited sight, training of visual perception, and utilization of various large-type printing?

Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Persons who are unable to see can't be educated. 2) Braille is a form of printing with raised parts that blind people can read by touching the paper. 3) A code is a system of words, letters, or signs that you use instead of ordinary words when you are writing something that you want to keep secret. 4) The blind move about intuitively. 5) Partially seeing children need nothing to be educated. 5) A sense of smell is the ability to notice or recognize smells..6) A sense of touch is the sense that you use to discover what something is like, by putting your hand or another part of your body on it. 7) Sight is one's physical ability to see. 8) A sense of hearing is the sense which you use to hear sounds. 9) A sense of taste is the special feeling that is produced by a particular food or drink when you put it in your mouth. 10) Intuition is the ability to understand or know something by using your feelings rather than by carefully considering the facts.

Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) The blind through the sense of hearing and the sense of touch are educated. 2) Braille a code of embossed dots over which the blind person runs his fingers and translates the sequences of dots into meaning is. 3) Modifications of a Braille code for languages, for mathematical and technical material, and for musical notation exist. 4) Mobility training the blind move about comfortably in their environment by using senses other than vision is widely used to help. 5) Partially seeing children the visual, auditory, and tactile senses are educated primarily through. 6) Partially seeing children magnification of their limited sight, training of visual perception, and utilization of various large-type printing use.
Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Слуховой; увеличение при помощи оптики; зрительное восприятие; использование; слепой; нотная запись; обоняние; обучение подвижности; осязание; давать образование; зрение; свободно перемещаться в окружающей среде; слух; вкус; интуиция; осязательный; код рельефных точек; зрительный.

Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) The blind are educated through ... 2) Braille is a code of ... 3) Modifications of a Braille code exist for ... 4) Mobility training is widely used to ... 5) Partially seeing children are educated primarily through ... 6) Partially seeing children use ...


Ex.VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) Braille; b) how partially seeing children are educated.
Ex.VII. Retell the text THE EDUCATION OF BLIND CHILDREN.

3.8 THE EDUCATION OF DEAF CHILDREN
Ex. I. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

The most specialized teaching techniques are required for deaf children. Deaf children are ones who are physically unable to hear anything or unable to hear well. Because of their hearing loss, deaf children are inhibited in the ability to speak and to learn to read. The inability to read well inhibits other educational efforts. Special techniques for deaf children to speak and to learn to read involve learning to speak by visual methods and learning to "hear" others through lip-reading. To lip-read means to understand what someone is saying by watching the way their lips move. General information is sometimes obtained by the deaf through finger language. A finger language is a language that uses finger movements instead of spoken words, used by people who cannot hear. The education of the hard of hearing is much easier than the education of the deaf. These children are generally educated in regular classes with ordinary children but receive special instruction from teachers in the use of hearing aids. A hearing aid is a small thing which fits into or behind one's ear to make sounds louder, worn by people who cannot hear well.

Deaf - глухой; hearing loss - потеря слуха; inhibit -препятствовать, сдерживать; educational efforts - образовательные усилия; involve - включать в себя; visual methods - визуальные методы; lip-reading - чтение с губ (метод обучения глухонемых); finger language - язык жестов, язык глухонемых; the hard of hearing -люди с ослабленным слухом; hearing aid - слуховой аппарат.

1) Are the most specialized teaching techniques required for deaf children? 2) What is meant by the term "deaf children"? 3) Why are deaf children inhibited in the ability to speak and to learn to read? 4) What inability inhibits other educational efforts? 5) What do special techniques for deaf children involve? 6) What does to lip-read mean? 7) What is general information sometimes obtained by the deaf through? 8) What is meant by the term "finger language"? 9) Is the education of the hard of hearing much easier than the education of the deaf? 10) The hard of hearing are educated in regular classes with ordinary children, aren't they? 11) What is meant by the term "hearing aid"?


Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) The most primitive teaching techniques are required for the deaf and dumb. 2) Deaf children are ones who are permanently unable to speak. 3) Deaf children have the ability to learn to read. 4) Special techniques for deaf children include visual methods. 5) General information is got by the deaf through sign language. 6) A finger language is a language that uses hand movements instead of words. 7) The education of the deaf is more difficult than the education of the hard of hearing. 8) The hard of hearing are educated in special classes.


Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) The most specialized teaching techniques for deaf children are required. 2) Deaf children ones who are physically unable to hear anything or unable to hear well are. 3) Deaf children in the ability to speak and to learn to read because of their hearing loss are inhibited. 4) Special techniques for deaf children learning to speak by visual methods and learning to hear others through lip-reading involve. 5) To lip-read to understand what someone is saying by watching the way their lips move means. 6) General information the deaf through finger language is obtained by. 7) A finger language a language that uses finger movements instead of spoken words is. 8) The education of the hard of hearing the education of the deaf is much easier than. 9) The hard of hearing regular classes with ordinary children are generally educated in.

Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English).

Глухонемой; язык глухонемых; люди с ослабленным слухом; слуховой аппарат; движения пальцев; технические приемы обучения; обычные классы; специализированные классы; обыкновенные дети; учиться читать; получать информацию; немой; давать образование; глухой; потеря слуха; сдерживать; образовательные усилия; включать в себя; визуальные методы; чтение с губ.


Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) ... are required for deaf children. 2) Deaf children are ones who ... 3) Deaf children are inhibited in the ability ... 4) Special techniques for deaf children involve ... 5) To lip-read means ... 6) General information is obtained by the deaf through ... 7) A finger language is ... 8) The education of the hard of hearing is much easier than ... 9) The hard of hearing are generally educated in ... 10) A hearing aid is ...


Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) the education of the deaf; b) the education of the hard of hearing.
Ex. VII. Retell the text THE EDUCATION OF DEAF CHILDREN.
3.9 THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH SPEECH DEFECTS
Ex. I. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

Children with speech defects require highly specialized teaching techniques, usually on an individual basis. Speech defects may originate in the brain, the ear, or anywhere along the vocal tract and may affect the voice, articulation, and language development.

Speech defects may include defects in the expression and comprehension of words, and the ability to put words in a meaningful order may be lost. Speech defects are strongly marked among stutterers, who have trouble with words starting with consonants, first words in sentences, and multisyllable words. Stuttering has a psychological, not a physiological, basis, tending to appear in children pressured to speak fluently in public. Children with speech defects are often found among the cerebral palsied.

Cerebral palsy is a disease caused by damage to the brain before or during birth which results in difficulties of movement and speech. Cerebral palsy does not necessarily imply mental retardation; many children affected with cerebral palsy may be perceptive and intelligent, but often unable to communicate by intelligible words or signs and, thus, may appear mentally retarded. Speech defects are treated by speech therapy.

Speech defect - дефект речи; originate - возникать; vocal tract - голосовой тракт; strongly marked - ярко выраженный; stutterer - заика; multisyllable word -многосложное слово; psychological lsaika'bd3ikal] - психологический; physiological - физиологический; fluently -плавно, гладко; бегло; in public - открыто, публично; cerebral palsy - церебральный паралич; cerebral - церебральный, мозговой, черепно-мозговой; imply - подразумевать; mental retardation - задержка умственного развития; affected - пораженный (болезнью); perceptive - восприимчивый; intelligent - умный; понятливый, смышленый; communicate - обмениваться информацией; общаться; intelligible words - понятные (вразумительные) слова; may appear mentally retarded - могут показаться умственно отсталыми; speech therapy - логопедия; therapy - лечение, терапия; alimentary tract - пищеварительный тракт.

1) What do children with speech defects require? 2) Where may speech defects originate? 3) What may speech defects affect? 4) What defects may speech defects include? 5) Children with speech defects may lose the ability to put words in a meaningful order mayn't they? 6) Are speech defects marked among stutterers? 7) What words do stutterers have trouble with? 8) What basis does stuttering have? 9) Stuttering tends to appear in children pressured to speak fluently in public, doesn't it? 10) Children with speech defects are often found among the cerebral palsied, aren't they? 11) What is meant by the term "cerebral palsy"? 12) Does cerebral palsy imply mental retardation? 13) What therapy are speech defects treated by?


Ex. II . Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Children with speech defects require highly particularized teaching techniques. 2) Speech defects may start to develop in anywhere along the alimentary tract. 3) Speech defects may change language development. 4) Speech defects may include defects in the understanding of words. 5) Children with speech defects may obtain the ability to put words in a meaningful order. 6) Stutterers have trouble with words starting with vowels. 7) Stuttering has a physiological, not a psychological, basis. 8) Stuttering appears in children forced to speak without long pauses. 9) Children with speech defects are never found among the cerebral palsied. 10) Cerebral palsy is a disease caused by damage to the organ inside your head that controls how you think, feel, and move. 11) The ability to speak is not much influenced by cerebral palsy. 12) Cerebral palsy possibly but not certainly implies mental retardation. 13) Children affected with cerebral palsy are good at thinking quickly and clearly. 14) Children affected with cerebral palsy are unable to say intelligible words. 15) Children affected with cerebral palsy may be less intelligent than other children because of slower mental development.


Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) Children require with speech defects highly individualized teaching techniques. 2) Speech originate defects may in the brain, the ear, or anywhere along the vocal tract. 3) Speech defects the voice, articulation, and language development may affect. 4) Speech defects defects in the expression and comprehension of words may include. 5) Children may lose with speech defects the ability to. put words in a meaningful order. 6) Speech defects among stutterers are strongly marked. 7) Stutterers trouble with words starting with consonants, first words in sentences, and multisyllable words have. 8) Stuttering a psychological, not a physiological, basis has. 9) Stuttering in children pressured to speak fluently in public tends to appear. 10) Children with speech defects among the cerebral palsied are often found. 11) Cerebral palsy a disease caused by damage to the brain before or during birth is. 12) Cerebral palsy in difficulties of movement and speech results. 13) Cerebral palsy does not necessarily mental retardation imply. 14) Many children affected with cerebral palsy perceptive and intelligent may be. 15) Many children affected with cerebral palsy by intelligible words or signs may often be unable to communicate. 16) Many children affected with cerebral palsy mentally retarded may appear. 17) Speech defects by speech therapy are treated.


Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Физиологический; бегло; публично; церебральный паралич; пораженный болезнью; восприимчивый; смышленый; общаться; вразумительные слова; могут показаться умственно отсталыми; логопедия; терапия; ярко выраженный; заика; психологический; подразумевать задержку умственного развития; дефект речи; заикание; возникать; многосложное слово.


Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) Children with speech defects require ... 2) Speech defects may originate in ... 3) Speech defects may affect... 4) Speech defects may include defects in ... 5) Children with speech defects may lose the ability ... 6) Speech defects are strongly marked among ... 7) Stutterers have trouble with ... 8) Stuttering has ... basis. 9) Stuttering tends to appear in children ... 10) Children with speech defects are often found among ... 11) Cerebral palsy is ... 12) Cerebral palsy results in ... 13) Cerebral palsy does not necessarily imply ... 14) Many children affected with cerebral palsy may be ... 15) Many children affected with cerebral palsy may often be unable to communicate by ... 16) Many children affected with cerebral palsy may appear ... 17) Speech defects are treated by ...
Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) speech defects in the expression and comprehension of words; b) speech defects and stuttering; c) speech defects and the cerebral palsied.
Ex.VI. Retell the text THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH SPEECH DEFECTS.
3.10 THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH MOTOR HANDICAPS
Ex. I. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

For children who have motor handicaps, the required teaching techniques are minimal. Unless the child has additional problems such as learning disabilities, mental retardation, or speech problems, crippled children, who are physically unable to use their arms or their legs properly, learn like other children, and they can follow the same classroom materials.

Special techniques are necessary, however, to help such children to adapt to their environment and to adapt the environment to their disability. Wheelchairs, modified desks, orthopedically designed seats, and other apparatuses aid the child in mobility and the manipulation of classroom materials.

One of the most important aspects of the education of those with orthopedic and neurological handicaps is preparing the child for adapting to the world outside the classroom and facing his handicap in such a way as to permit him to lead a relatively normal life.

Motor - моторный, двигательный; handicap - физический или умственный недостаток, физическое или умственное расстройство; motor handicap - увечье, затрудняющее выполнение двигательных действий; learning disability - необучаемость; mental retardation - задержка умственного развития; cripple - калечить, уродовать; crippled - инвалид, калека; adapt -приспособиться; environment - окружающая обстановка; disability - неспособность, бессилие; физический недостаток; wheelchair - a chair with wheels used by people who cannot walk; modify - видоизменять; neurological - неврологический; apparatus - аппарат (pi. apparatuses); manipulation - обращение; orthopedic - ортопедический; face his handicap - смотреть в лицо своему физическому недостатку без страха; permit - разрешать.

1) The required teaching techniques for children who have motor handicaps are minimal, aren't they? 2) Crippled children are ones who are physically unable to use their arms or their legs properly, aren't they? 3) What additional problems may crippled children have? 4) Do crippled children learn like other children? 5) Can crippled children follow the same classroom materials? 6) Why are special techniques necessary for children who have motor handicaps? 7) What apparatuses aid the child in mobility and the manipulation of classroom materials? 8) What is the most important aspect of the education of those with orthopedic and neurological handicaps?


Ex. I. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) The required teaching techniques for mentally handicapped children are minimal. 2) Physically handicapped children usually suffer from mental retardation. 3) Visually handicapped children are those who are blind or partly blind. 4) Crippled children can scarcely learn like normal children. S) Special techniques fail to help crippled children to adapt to their environment. 6) Special techniques for crippled children include orthopedic beds, chairs, and shoes. 7) Walking on crutches aids the child in mobility. 8) Physically handicapped children are prepared for adapting to the world outside the classroom. 9) Physically handicapped children are prepared for facing their handicaps in such a way as to permit them to lead a relatively normal life.


Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) The required teaching techniques are for children who have motor handicaps minimal. 2) Children with motor handicaps learning disabilities, mental retardation, or speech problems may have. 3) Crippled children ones who are physically unable to use their arms or their legs properly are. 4) Crippled children like other children can learn. 5) Crippled children the same classroom materials as other children can follow. 6) Special techniques crippled children to adapt to their environment and to adapt the environment to their disability help. 7) Special techniques include for crippled children wheelchairs, modified desks, and orthopedically designed seats. 8) Wheelchairs, modified desks, and orthopedically designed seats the child in mobility aid and the manipulation of classroom materials. 9) The education of children who have motor handicaps to is prepare the child for adapting to the world outside the classroom. 10) The education of children who have motor handicaps to prepare the child for facing his handicap in such a way as to permit him to lead a relatively normal life is.


Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Видоизмененный письменный стол; неврологический недостаток; ортопедический недостаток; смотреть в лицо своему физическому недостатку; вести относительно нормальную жизнь; двигательный аппарат; физический или умственный недостаток; необучаемость; задержка умственного развития; инвалид; приспособиться к окружающей обстановке; неспособность; инвалидная коляска.


Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) The required teaching techniques for children who have motor handicaps are ... 2) Children with motor handicaps may have additional problems such as ... 3) Crippled children are ones who ... 4) Crippled children can learn like ... 5) Crippled children can follow ... 6) Special techniques help crippled children to adapt... 7) Special techniques for crippled children include ... 8) Wheelchairs, modified desks, and orthopedically designed seats aid the child in ... 9) The education of children who have motor handicaps is to prepare the child for adapting to ... 10) The education of children who have motor handicaps is to prepare the child for facing...


Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) additional problems that physically handicapped children may have; b) special techniques for physically handicapped children; c) the most important aspect of the education of physically handicapped children.
Ex.VII. Retell the text THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH MOTOR HANDICAPS.



  1. Unit IV. TEACHER EDUCATION

Teacher education is any of the formal programs that have been established for the preparation of teachers at the elementary- and secondary-school levels. It is useful to recognize three subgroups of teachers: elementary-school teachers, secondary-school teachers, and university teachers.

Teacher education - педагогическое образование; preparation of teachers - подготовка преподавателей; elementary school -начальная школа; secondary school - средняя школа; university / college teachers - преподаватели высшего учебного заведения.

THE PREPARATION OF TEACHERS

Teacher education, as it exists today, can be divided into two stages, preservice and in-service. Preservice education includes all the stages of education and training that precede the teacher's entry to paid employment in a school. In-service education is the education and training that the teacher receives after tie beginning of his career.

Preservice education - программа учебного курса по подготовке преподавателей (система обучения преподавателей до устройства на работу); paid employment - оплачиваемая работа; in-service education - повышение квалификации; обучение без отрыва от производства.
4.1 PRESERVICE EDUCATION
Ex. I. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

The first stage of preservice education is the study of one or more principal subjects that the student is preparing to teach. For example, students in many colleges of education in England study only one principal subject, to which they devote about one-third of their total time. In the United States, the first two years of college or university work may include some principal subjects. Both patterns have their critics, the first because it produces narrow intellectual specialists, the second because it encourages dilettantism and inadequate depth.

The second stage of preservice education includes the study of philosophy, sociology, history of education, and educational psychology. These courses contribute to the student's general education and personal development as well as providing him with knowledge of differences in individual educability or educational opportunity. The third stage of preservice education includes the. study of teaching methods, that is, the set of special methods and principles that are used when teaching a particular subject.

The last stage of preservice education is teaching practice, usually carried out in model schools attached to colleges or universities. For example, a typical model school for medical students is a teaching hospital, where they receive practical training from experienced doctors. Teaching practice often shows discrepancies between teaching methods and approaches taught in teacher training colleges or pedagogical departments within universities and those that students encounter in schools.

Preservice education - программа учебного курса по подготовке преподавателей (система обучения преподавателей до устройства на работу); college of education - педагогический колледж; dilettantism [dili'taentizm] - дилетантство, дилетантизм; dilettante - someone who seems or pretends to be interested in a subject but is not seriously interested and does not know very much about it; philosophy - философия; sociology социология; educational psychology - педагогическая психология; individual educability - индивидуальная способность получить образование; educational opportunity -возможность получить образование; teaching methods / teaching methodology - методика преподавания; teaching practice - педагогическая практика; model school - a school that has been specially designed or organized to be as good as possible; teaching hospital - клиника (при медицинском высшем учебном заведении); discrepancy - несходство; противоречие; encounter - встречаться, сталкиваться.

1) What is the first stage of preservice education? 2) Why does the study of one principal subject have its critics? 3) Why does the study of some principal subjects have its critics? 4) What does the second stage of preservice education include? 5) What courses contribute to the student's general education and personal development? 6) What courses provide the student with knowledge of differences in individual educability and educational opportunity? 7) What is the third stage of preservice education? 8) What is the last stage of preservice education? 9) What does teaching practice often show?


Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Preservice education includes the study of some principal subjects that the student is preparing to teach. 2) Preservice education produces narrow intellectual specialists. 3) Preservice education encourages dilettantism. 4) Preservice education includes the study of good and evil. 5) The study of sociology gives nothing to the student's general education. 6) The study of psychology provides the student with knowledge of the mind and how it works. 7) Preservice education includes the study of teaching methodology. 8) Preservice education excludes teaching practice. 9) Teaching practice is carried out in colleges or universities.


Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) The first stage of preservice education one or more principal subjects that the student is preparing to teach is the study of. 2) The study of one principal subject narrow intellectual specialists produces. 3) The study encourages of some principal subjects dilettantism and inadequate depth. 4) The second stage includes of preservice education the study of philosophy, sociology, history of education, and educational psychology. 5) The study of philosophy, sociology! history of education, and educational psychology to the student's' general education and personal development contributes. 6) The study provides of philosophy, sociology, history of education, and educational psychology the student with knowledge of differences in individual educability or educational opportunity. 7) The third stage includes of preservice education the study of teaching methods. 8) The last is stage of preservice education teaching practice. 9) Teaching practice in model schools attached to colleges or universities is usually carried out. 10) Teaching practice often discrepancies between teaching methods taught in teacher training colleges or pedagogical departments within universities and those that students encounter in schools shows.


Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Система обучения преподавателей; дилетантизм; философия; программа учебного курса по подготовке преподавателей; педагогический колледж; повышение квалификации; социология; педагогическая психология; методика преподавания; педагогическая практика; педагогическое образование; подготовка преподавателей.
Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) The first stage of preservice education is the study of... 2) The study of one principal subject produces ... 3) The study of some principal subjects encourages ... 4) The second stage of preservice education includes the study of ... 5) The study of philosophy, sociology, history of education, and educational psychology contributes to ... 6) The study of philosophy, sociology, history of education, and educational psychology provides the student with ... 7) The third stage of preservice education includes the study of ... 8) The last stage of preservice education is ... 9) Teaching practice is carried out in ... 10) Teaching practice often shows ...


Ex.VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) the first stage of ; preservice education; b) the second stage of preservice education; c) the third stage of preservice education; d) the last stage of preservice education.
Ex. VII. Retell the text PRESERVICE EDUCA TION.
<< предыдущая страница   следующая страница >>