Практикум по английскому языку: учебное пособие / О. В. Гаврилова; Бузулукский гуманитарно-технолог ин-т (филиал) огу. Бузулук, 2013 - shikardos.ru o_O
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Практикум по английскому языку: учебное пособие / О. В. Гаврилова; Бузулукский гуманитарно-технолог - страница №1/6


Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Бузулукский гуманитарно-технологический институт

(филиал) федерального государственного бюджетного

образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования

«Оренбургский государственный университет»


Кафедра гуманитарных и социальных дисциплин

О.В. Гаврилова


Практикум по английскому языку

Рекомендовано Редакционно – издательским советом Бузулукского гуманитарно – технологического института (филиала) ОГУ в качестве учебного пособия для студентов, обучающихся по программам высшего профессионального образования по направлению подготовки 050100.62 Педагогическое образование

Бузулук

2013
УДК 803



ББК 81.2 Англ

Г 12
Рецензенты

старший преподаватель кафедры гуманитарных, социальных дисциплин БГТИ (филиала) ОГУ Л.И. Коннова

методист районного отдела образования, преподаватель высшей категории Е.В. Дрючкова





Г 12


Гаврилова, О.В.

Практикум по английскому языку: учебное пособие / О.В. Гаврилова; Бузулукский гуманитарно-технолог. ин-т (филиал) ОГУ. - Бузулук, 2013. – 127 с.





Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов по направлению подготовки 050100.62 Педагогическое образование.

Пособие построено по тематическому принципу с педагогической направленностью. Его цель – накопление и систематизация словарного запаса по тематическому принципу, развитие навыков дискутирования и аргументации, совершенствование навыков чтения и понимания иноязычного текста, реферирование и аннотирование.

УДК 803


ББК 81.2 Англ

© Гаврилова О.В., 2013



© БГТИ (филиал) ОГУ, 2013





Содержание




1

Unit I. Compulsory education………………………………………..

4

2

Unit II. Preschool education and language development…………..

9

3

Unit III. Special education…………………………………………...

12

3.1

The education of maladjusted children………………………………...

13

3.2

Autism……………………………………............................................

16

3.3

The education of children with learning disabilities……………………

19

3.4

The education of gifted or mentally retarded children............................

22

3.5

The education of mentally retarded children........................................

26

3.6

Prodigies and idiot savants……………………………………………..

29

3.7

The education of physically handicapped children…………………….

32

3.8

The education of deaf children…………………………………………

35

3.9

The education of children with speech defects…………………………

37

3.10

The education of children with motor handicaps………………………

40

4.

Unit IV. Teacher education………………………………………...

44

4.1

4.2


Preservice education……………..…………………………………….

Сertification……………………………………………………………



44

47


4.3

In-service education……………………………………………………

51

4.4

Teacher-preparing institutions…………………………………………

54

4.5

The status of the teacher……………………………………………….

57

5

Тексты для дополнительного чтения…………………………….

59

6

Тесты для самоконтроля…………………………………………..

89




Приложение А Написание делового письма………………………..

Приложение Б Фразовые глаголы…………………………………...



113

118





Приложение В Союзы………………………………………………..

Приложение Г Сводная таблица времен английского языка………



124

125




  1. Unit I. COMPULSORY EDUCATION

Education is the knowledge and skills that you gain from being taught at a school, college, or university, and thus education is divided into elementary education, secondary education, and higher education. Compulsory education traditionally includes elementary education as its first stage, and secondary education as its second stage. Elementary education is often preceded by preschool education. Higher education is optional as well as preschool education.

Compulsory education – обязательное обучение; elementary education – начальное образование; secondary education – среднее образование; higher education – высшее образование; precede [pri:'si:d] - предшествовать; preschool education – дошкольное образование; optional - необязательный.

PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

Preschool education is education during the earliest phases of childhood, beginning in infancy and ending upon entry into primary school at about five, six, or seven years of age (the age varying from country to country).



PRESCHOOL-EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

Educational institutions for preschool education in Britain include creches, playgroups, and nursery schools. A nursery school is a school for children aged between 2 and 5. Children are not required by law to go to nursery school, and may go instead to other groups such as playgroups or creches. A playgroup or a playschool is a place where children who are below school age go regularly to play together and to learn through playing.

A creche is a place where babies and small children are taken care of while their parents are working, studying, or shopping. Educational institutions for preschool education in the US include nursery schools and kindergartens. Children from 3 to 5 years old attend nursery school, an optional school where children play together and learn to socialize. Children from 5 to 6 years old are to attend kindergarten, which is compulsory and is considered a part of elementary education.

Kindergartens in the US prepare young children for elementary school and develop basic skills and social behavior by games, exercises, music, and simple handicrafts. Creches as educational institutions for preschool education are attended by children not only in French-speaking countries but also in such places as Scandinavia, Poland, Russia, and Israel. In Italy, a child goes from the nursery school directly to the primary school. In Germany, in addition to the kindergarten, there is the school kindergarten, which is for children of school age who are not considered sufficiently mature, and which therefore serves as a kind of preparatory school for primary school.

Preschool-educational institutions – учреждения дошкольного образования / учебные заведения дошкольного образования; infancy ['infansi] – раннее детство (the period of a child's life before it can walk or talk); vary - меняться, изменяться; educational institution – учебное заведение; creche - детские ясли; playgroup = playschool – детская группа, дошкольная группа, детская площадка (разновидность детского сада для детей от 3 до 5 лет); playschool - «play school – играем в школу»); nursery school –детский сад; to socialize – подготавливать к жизни в коллективе, в обществе; kindergarten – детский сад; handicraft -ремесло, ручная работа; Israel - Израиль; sufficiently mature – достаточно зрелый; to be mature - to behave in a sensible and reasonable way; primary education – начальное образование; primary school – начальная школа.

1) What educational institutions does preschool education in Britain include? 2) A nursery school in Britain is a school for children aged between 2 and 5, isn't it? 3) Are British children required by law to go to nursery schools? 4) May British children go to playgroups or creches instead of going to nursery schools? 5) What do British children do in playgroups? 6) What do British children do in creches? 7) What educational institutions does preschool education in the US include? 8) American children from 3 to 5 years old attend nursery schools, don't they? 9) Are American nursery schools optional schools? 10) What do American children do in their nursery schools? 11)Must American children from 5 to 6 years old attend kindergartens? 12) American kindergartens are compulsory educational institutions, aren't they? 13) American kindergartens are considered a part of elementary education, aren't they? 14) What do kindergartens in the US prepare young children for? 15) What do kindergartens in the US develop basic skills and social behavior by? 16) Creches are attended by children in France, Poland, Russia, and Israel, aren't they? 17) What children go from the nursery school directly to the primary school? 18) What do German school kindergartens serve as?

Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) British educational institutions for preschool education exclude creches. 2) A creche in Britain is a school for children aged between 2 and 5. 3) British children are required by law to go to nursery schools. 4) British children are forbidden from going to playgroups. 5) British playgroups allow children to play together and to learn through playing. 6) A nursery school in Britain is a place where babies are taken care of while their parents are working, studying, or shopping.7) One can find nursery schools and kindergartens in the US. 8) American children from 7 to 8 years old attend nursery schools. 9) American nursery schools are unrequired schools. 10) American children are trained in their nursery schools to behave in a way that is acceptable in the society they are living in. 11) American children from 2 to 3 years old attend kindergartens. 12) American kindergartens are obligatory educational institutions. 13) American kindergartens can hardly be considered a part of elementary education. 14) Kindergartens in the US prepare young children for secondary schools. 15) Kindergartens in the US develop basic skills and social behavior by games. 16) Creches are attended by children not only in France but also in Russia. 17) Italian children go from the primary school directly to the nursery school. 18) German school kindergartens serve as a kind of preparatory school for high school.

Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) Educational institutions for preschool education in Britain creches, playgroups, and nursery schools include. 2) A nursery school in Britain a school for children aged between 2 and 5 is. 3) British children by law to go to nursery are not required schools. 4) Instead of going to nursery schools, British may go children to playgroups or creches. 5) A playgroup in Britain children who are below school age go regularly to play together and to learn through playing is a place where. 6) A creche in Britain babies and small children are taken care of while their parents are working, studying, or shopping is a place where. 7) Educational institutions for preschool education in the US nursery schools and kindergartens include. 8) American attend children from 3 to 5 years old nursery schools. 9) American nursery are schools optional schools. 10) American play children together and learn to socialize in their nursery schools. 11) American children from 5 to 6 years old kindergartens are to attend. 12) American kindergartens compulsory educational are institutions. 13) American kindergartens a part of elementary are considered education. 14) Kindergartens in the US young children for elementary prepare school. 15) Kindergartens in the US basic skills and social behavior by games, exercises, music, and simple handicrafts develop. 16) Creches as educational institutions for preschool education children not only in French-speaking countries but also in Scandinavia, Poland, Russia, and Israel are attended by. 17) In Italy, a child from the nursery school directly to the primary goes school. 18) In Germany, in addition to the kindergarten, there is are not considered the school kindergarten, which is for children of school age who sufficiently mature. 19) German school kindergartens as a kind of preparatory school for primary school serve.

Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Среднее образование; высшее образование; обязательное обучение; дошкольное образование; раннее детство; учебное заведение; детские ясли; дошкольная группа; детский сад; подготавливать к жизни в обществе; ремесло; достаточно зрелый; начальная школа; начальное образование; учебные заведения дошкольного образования.

Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) Educational institutions for preschool education in Britain include ...

2) A nursery school in Britain is ...

3) British children are not required by law to go to ...

4) Instead of going to nursery schools, British children may go to ...

5) A playgroup in Britain is ...

6) A creche in Britain is ...

7) Educational institutions for preschool education in the US include ...

8) American children from 3 to 5 years old attend ...

9) American nursery schools are ... schools.

10) American children play together and learn to socialize in ...

11) American children from 5 to 6 years old are to attend ...

12) American kindergartens are ... educational institutions.

13) American kindergartens are considered a part of...

14) Kindergartens in the US prepare young children for ...

15) Kindergartens in the US develop ...

16) Creches as educational institutions for preschool education are attended by children not only in ... but also in ...

17) In Italy, a child goes from ... to ...

18) In Germany, in addition to the kindergarten, there is ...

19) German school kindergartens serve as ...

Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) educational institutions for preschool education in Britain; b) educational institutions for preschool education in the US.

Ex. VII. Retell the text PRESCHOOL-EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS.


  1. Unit II. PRESCHOOL EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Ex.1. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

Of major concern in preschool education is language development. Most investigators agree that true speech starts when the child begins to develop meaningful associations with the words he uses. For example, an infant who imitates the word "mama" without understanding its meaning is not engaging in true speech.

For a child between two and six, oral speech is a major task, involving both expression and comprehension. By about the age of four he has mastered the fundamentals of the grammar of his language. By the age of six the average child has increased his vocabulary to about 2,500 words or so—depending on the quality of his environment, and particularly the willingness of adults to relate to the child. Many studies show that the very young child in an impersonal institution, such as an orphanage, generally lags in language development behind children of the same age in a normal family setting.

One of the many tasks of early childhood education is to provide training in elementary language skills for all children, but especially for those who need to be protected from the harmful effects of impersonal institutions. To improve their comprehension and speech, there are listening and language games.

Language development – развитие языка; of major concern – главная забота; investigator - исследователь; true speech – истинная речь; to develop meaningful associations with the words one uses – развивать ассоциации между словами, которые используются в речи, и их значением; engage - вовлекать; oral speech – устная речь; expression and comprehension – выразительность и понимание; master the fundamentals of grammar – овладеть основными правилами грамматики; average - средний, обычный, нормальный; vocabulary – запас слов; environment setting - окружение, окружающая обстановка; окружающая среда; willingness of adults to relate to the child –готовность взрослых установить взаимоотношения с ребенком; studies - исследования; impersonal institution – обезличенное учреждение; orphanage – приют для сирот; orphan - сирота; lag - отставать; elementary language skills –элементарные языковые навыки; keep расеwith – не отставать от; minor - второстепенный; fluently - бегло; barrier - барьер.

1) What is of major concern in preschool education? 2) What do most investigators agree on? 3) What infant is not engaging in true speech? 4) For a child between two and six, oral speech is a major task, isn't it? 5) By what age has the child mastered the fundamentals of the grammar of his language? 6) The enrichment of the child's vocabulary depends on the quality of his environment, doesn't it? 7) Does the enrichment of the child's vocabulary depend on the willingness of adults to relate to the child? 8) What do many studies show? 9) What is the main task of early childhood education? 10) To improve the child's comprehension and speech, there are listening and language games, aren't there?

Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Of major concern in preschool education is character development. 2) True speech starts when the child begins to say whatever he wants. 3) A child usually imitates his parents' words in order to make them laugh. 4) For a child between one and two, oral speech is a minor task. 5) The child fails to control grammar rules by the age of four. 6) By the age of six the child is to speak fluently. 7) The enrichment of the child's vocabulary depends on his desire for knowledge. 8) Orphan children keep pace in language development with children of the same age in a normal family. 9) The main task of preschool education is to provide training in reading and writing for all children. 10) A language is a system of communication by written or spoken words, which is used by the people of a particular country or area. 11) A native language is the first language you learned. 12) A modern language is a language that is still spoken today. 13) A dead language is a language that is no longer spoken. 4) The language barrier is the difficulty of communicating with people who speak a different language.

Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) Of major is concern in preschool education language development. 2) Most investigators that true speech starts when the child begins to develop meaningful associations with the words he uses agree. 3) An infant who imitates the word "mama" without understanding its meaning in true speech is not engaging. 4) For a child between two and six, oral is speech a major task. 5) The child the fundamentals of the grammar of his language by the age of four has mastered. 6) By the age of six the average child his vocabulary to about 2,500 words has increased. 7) The enrichment of the child's vocabulary the quality of his environment depends on. 8) The enrichment of the child's vocabulary the willingness of adults to relate to the depends on child. 9) Children in an impersonal institution generally in language development behind children of the same age in a normal family setting lag. 10) The main task of early childhood education to provide is training in elementary language skills for all children. 11) To improve the child's comprehension and speech, there listening and language games are.

Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Обезличенное учреждение; родной язык; приют для сирот; сирота; современный язык; отставать от других детей; элементарные языковые навыки; не отставать от других детей; второстепенная задача; говорить бегло; развитие языка; главная забота; исследователь; истинная речь; развивать ассоциации; устная речь; выразительность и понимание; овладеть основными правилами грамматики; обычный ребенок; запас слов; языковой барьер; окружающая среда; мертвый язык; готовность взрослых установить взаимоотношения с ребенком; исследования.

Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) Of major concern in preschool education is ... 2) Most investigators agree that ... 3) An infant who imitates the word "mama" without understanding its meaning is ... 4) For a child between two and six, oral speech is ... 5) The child has mastered ... 6) By the age of six the average child has increased ... 7) The enrichment of the child's vocabulary depends on the quality of ... 8) The enrichment of the child's vocabulary depends on the willingness of ... 9) Children in an impersonal institution generally lag in ... 10) The main task of early childhood education is ... 11) To improve the child's comprehension and speech, there are ...

Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) what true speech means; b) what the child reaches by the age of four and by the age of six; c) the enrichment of the child's vocabulary; d) the child in an impersonal Institution.




  1. Unit III. SPECIAL EDUCATION

Special education is the education of children who deviate socially, mentally, or physically from the average to such an extent that they require major modifications of usual school practices. The children include the emotionally disturbed, children who have learning disabilities, the gifted, the mentally retarded, those with impairments of vision, hearing, or speech, and those with orthopedic and neurological handicaps.

Special education – специальное образование; deviate –отклоняться от нормы; socially – в общественном отношении; mentally – в умственном отношении; physically – в физическом отношении; average - средний; to such an extent – до такой степени; major modification – существенное изменение; disturbed - взбудораженный; learning disability –необучаемость; gifted - одаренный; mentally retarded (=mentally defective) – умственно отсталый; retard -задерживать, замедлять; impairment of vision, hearing, or speech – ухудшение зрения, слуха или речи; orthopedic - ортопедический; neurological - неврологический; mental handicap– умственное расстройство; умственный недостаток; physical handicap — физическое расстройство; физический недостаток.

THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOUR

Socially and emotionally maladjusted children are referred for special programs by parents or by teachers when they find it difficult to manage the child at home or in school. Autistic children make a separate part of maladjusted children. Autism is a severe mental illness that affects children and prevents them from communicating with other children or people. Psychiatrists together with social workers and teachers, determine the eligibility of maladjusted and autistic autistic children for special programs. Children with learning disabilities are assessed by psychoeducational diagnosticians, who through educational and psychological diagnostic tests determine the child's potential for learning and his level of achievement.

The education of children with maladaptive behaviour – обучение детей с неадекватным поведением в обществе; emotionally - эмоционально; maladjusted – неумеющий приспособиться к окружающей обстановке; refer -направлять; autism - аутизм (оторванность от людей, от жизни; погружённость в свой собственный мир); autistic–страдающий аутизмом; psychiatrist - психиатр; social worker – социальный работник (social work - work done by government or private organizations to improve bad social conditions and help people with particular social problems); eligibility - годность; learning disability - необучаемость; psycho- психо; educational - педагогический; diagnostician - диагност; psychological - психологический; diagnostic -диагностический.


    1. THE EDUCATION OF MALADJUSTED CHILDREN

Ex. I. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

Maladjusted children are those who are unable to form good relationships with other children because of problems in their character and behaviour. For children with social and emotional problems, special therapeutic services may be provided. Psychotherapy and behaviour modification by psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers are generally a part of the educational program. Psychotherapy is the treatment of mental illness, for example depression, by talking to maladjusted children and discussing their problems rather than using drugs or medical treatment.

Behaviour modification means the control of behaviour in which desired behaviours are rewarded, and vice versa, undesirable ones are punished. Behaviour modification helps teachers to shape individual behaviour toward some desired effect and to control behaviour in classrooms. Teaching techniques for maladjusted children are to stress personality development, social adjustment, and habits of interpersonal relationships. Personality development, social adjustment, and habits of interpersonal relationships must come before subjects that maladjusted children study at school. But to study different subjects at school is therapeutic in itself and must be promoted as much as possible.

Maladjusted – неумеющий приспособиться к окружающей обстановке; therapeutic - терапевтический; psychotherapy - психотерапия; behaviour modification = behaviour therapy – изменение поведения (метод мотивации, базирующийся на утверждении, что поощрение приводит к повторению, а наказание к избежанию совершенных поступков и образцов поведения); psychologist -психолог; psychiatrist - психиатр; social worker –социальный работник; mental illness – душевная болезнь; drugs -лекарства; medical treatment - лечение;technique - метод, способ; personality development – развитие личности; social adjustment – приспособление к окружающей социальной среде; habits of interpersonal relationships – навыки межличностных взаимоотношений.

1) What children are unable to form good relationships with other children because of problems in their character and behaviour? 2) What is generally a part of the educational program? 3) What is meant by the term "psychotherapy"? 4) What does behaviour modification mean? 5) What does behaviour modification help teachers to do? 6) What are teaching techniques for maladjusted children to stress? 7) What must come before subjects that maladjusted children study at school? 8) What is therapeutic in itself and must be promoted as much as possible?

Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Social adjustment is poor, faulty, or inadequate adjustment. 2) Therapy is the way that somebody behaves, especially towards other people and in a particular situation. 3) A relationship is a feeling of sadness that makes you think there is no hope for the future. 4) Behaviour is the treatment of an illness or injury over a fairly long period of time, especially without using drugs or operations. 5) An individual is the various aspects of a person's character that combine to make them different from other people. 6) Maladjustment is a change in the way a person behaves or thinks. 7) Depression is the way in which two people or two groups behave towards each other. 8) Personality is one person, considered separately from the rest of the group or society that they live in.


Ex.III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) Maladjusted children those who are unable to form good relationships with other children because of problems in their character and behaviour are. 2) Psychotherapy and behaviour modification by psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers generally a part of the educational program are. 3) Psychotherapy the treatment of mental illness, for example depression, by talking to maladjusted children and discussing their problems rather than using drugs or medical is treatment. 4) Behaviour modification the control of behaviour in which desired behaviours are rewarded, and vice versa, undesirable ones are means punished. 5) Behaviour modification teachers to shape individual behaviour toward some desired effect and to control behaviour in classrooms helps. 6) Teaching techniques for maladjusted children to stress personality development, social adjustment, and habits of interpersonal are relationships. 7) Personality development, social adjustment, and habits of interpersonal relationships come before subjects that maladjusted children study at school must. 8) To study different subjects at school therapeutic in iteelf and must be promoted as much as possible is.


Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Изменение поведения; развитие личности; приспособление к окружающей социальной среде; навыки межличностных взаимоотношений; терапевтические услуги; психотерапия; психолог; психиатр; социальный работник; душевная болезнь; лекарства; лечение; методы обучения детей, не умеющих приспособиться к окружающей обстановке; довольно долгий период времени.


Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) Maladjusted children are ... 2) ... are generally a part of the educational program. 3) Psychotherapy is ... 4) Behaviour modification means ... 5) Behaviour modification helps teachers to shape ... and to control ... 6) Teaching techniques for maladjusted children are to stress ... 7) ... must come before subjects that maladjusted children study at school. 8) To study different subjects at school is...


Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) therapeutic services for maladjusted children; b) teaching techniques for maladjusted children.
Ex.VII. Retell the text THE EDUCATION OF MALADJUSTED CHILDREN.

3.2 AUTISM
Ex. I. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

Autism is a neurobiological disorder that affects physical, social, and language skills. The term was first used by the psychiatrist Leo Kanner in the 1940s to describe children who appeared to be excessively withdrawn and self-preoccupied. Autism usually appears before 2 years of age. Autistic children appear indifferent or averse to affection and physical contact. They may suffer episodes of rage or panic.

Speech develops slowly and abnormally or not at all. It may be characterized by constant repetition of what is said by others. The replacement of speech by strange mechanical sounds also occurs Suffering severe learning difficulties, some autistic children may have an unusually high level of ability in a particular skill, for example in art or music. Autism is often characterized by rhythmic body movements such as rocking or hand-clapping and by an obsessive desire to prevent change in daily routines.

Autistic individuals may be hypersensitive to, for example high-pitched sounds, and abnormally slow to react to, for example physical pain. The disorder is more common in males. Though postnatal factors such as lack of parental attention were once blamed, it is now known that autism is the result of abnormalities in the brain structure. There is no effective treatment for autism.

Autism - аутизм (оторванность от людей, от жизни; погружённость в свой собственный мир); autistic страдающий аутизмом; neuro-concerning the nerves; neurobiology - нейробиология; disorder - расстройство; withdrawn - замкнутый, ушедший в себя; self-preoccupied = self-absorbed - эгоцентричный, поглощенный в свои мысли, интересы, эмоции; indifferent (to) - безразличный, безучастный, равнодушный; averse – питающий отвращение; affection (towards, for) - привязанность, любовь; suffer - испытывать; episode - эпизод; rage - ярость, гнев; panic -паника; abnormally - ненормально; rocking - качание; hand-clapping – хлопанье в ладоши; obsessive - навязчивый; routine – заведенный порядок; hypersensitive – чрезмерно чувствительный; high-pitched sounds -высокие, пронзительные звуки; postnatal происходящий после рождения; parental - родительский; abnormality - неправильность, ненормальность; autistic savant = idiot savant — умственно неполноценный человек, проявляющий незаурядные способности в какой-л. области.

1) What is meant by the term "autism"? 2) What term was first used to describe children who appeared to be excessively withdrawn and self-preoccupied? 3) When does autism usually appear? 4) What do autistic children appear indifferent or averse to? 5) What may autistic children suffer? 6) How does the speech of autistic children develop? 7) What may the speech of autistic children be characterized by? 8) What also occurs among autistic children? 9) May some autistic children have an unusually high level of ability in a particular skill? 10) Autism is characterized by rhythmic body movements such as rocking or hand-clapping, isn't it? 11) Autism is characterized by an obsessive desire to prevent change in daily routines, isn't it?12) May autistic individuals be hypersensitive to high-pitched sounds? 13) May autistic individuals be abnormally slow to react to physical pain? 14) Is autism more common in males or females? 15) What was once blamed for autism? 16) Is autism the result of abnormalities in the brain structure? 17) There is no effective treatment for autism, is there?


Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Autism is a developmental disorder characterized variously by impaired social interaction, difficulties in communicating, problems with seeing and hearing, and repetitive behavior. 2) Autism is the scientific term for withdrawn and self-preoccupied children. 3) To be preoccupied means to be very shy and quiet, and concerned only about one's own thoughts. 4) To be withdrawn means to think about something a lot, with the result that one does not pay attention to other things. 5) To be indifferent means to be concerned only with yourself and the things that affect you. 6) To be self-preoccupied means to be not caring about what is happening, especially about other people's problems or feelings. 7) To be averse to something means to be unwilling to do something or to dislike something. 8) Panic is a strong feeling of uncontrollable anger. 9) Rage is a sudden strong feeling of fear or nervousness that makes you unable to think clearly or behave sensibly. 10) To be hypersensitive means to be too easily hurt or upset by unimportant things.


Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) Autism a neurobiological disorder that affects physical, social, and language skills is. 2) The term "autism" children who appeared to be excessively withdrawn and self-preoccupied was first used to describe. 3) Autism usually before 2 years of age appears. 4) Autistic children indifferent or averse to affection and physical contact appear. 5) Autistic children episodes of rage or may suffer panic. 6) The speech of autistic children slowly and abnormally or not at develops all. 7) The speech of autistic children constant repetition of what is said by others may be characterized by. 8) The replacement of speech by strange mechanical sounds also among autistic children occurs. 9) Suffering severe learning difficulties, some autistic children an unusually high level of ability in a particular skill may have. 10) Autism rhythmic body movements such as rocking or hand-clapping is characterized by. 11) Autism an obsessive desire to prevent change in daily is characterized by routines. 12) Autistic individuals hypersensitive to high-pitched sounds may be. 13) Autistic individuals abnormally slow to react to physical may be pain. 14) Autism more common in males is. 15) Lack of parental attention once blamed for was autism. 16) It is now known that autism the result of abnormalities in the brain is structure. 17) There no effective treatment for autism is.


Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Ненормально; качание; хлопанье в ладоши; навязчивый; заведенный порядок; чрезмерно чувствительный; происходящий после рождения; родительский; ненормальность; умственно неполноценный человек, проявляющий незаурядные способности в какой-либо области; погружённость в свой собственный мир; страдающий аутизмом; нейробиология; расстройство; замкнутый, ушедший в себя; поглощенный в свои мысли, интересы, эмоции; безразличный, безучастный, равнодушный; питающий отвращение; привязанность; испытывать; ярость; паника.


Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) Autism is ... 2) The term "autism" was first used to describe ... 3) Autism usually appears ... 4) Autistic children appear indifferent or averse to ... 5) Autistic children may suffer ... 6) The speech of autistic children develops ... 7) The speech of autistic children may be characterized by ... 8) ... also occurs among autistic children. 9) Some autistic children may have ... 10) Autism is characterized by rhythmic body movements such as ... 11) Autism is characterized by an obsessive desire to ... 12) Autistic individuals may be hypersensitive to ... 13) Autistic individuals may be abnormally slow to react to ... 14) Autism is more common in ... 15) ... was once blamed for autism. 16)Autism is the result of ... 17) There is no effective treatment for...


Ex. VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) autism as a mental problem; b) autism as a social problem.
Ex. VII. Retell the text AUTISM.
3.3 THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
Ex. I. Scan the text. Work in pairs to answer the questions that follow.

A learning disability is a mental problem that children may have from birth, or that may be caused by illness or injury, that affects their ability to read, write, or calculate. Though its causes and nature are still not fully understood, it is widely agreed that the presence of a learning disability does not indicate subnormal intelligence. Rather it is thought that the learning-disabled have a neurologically based difficulty in processing language or figures.

Learning disabilities may be diagnosed through testing, and children may be enrolled in programs offering special help. Left unrecognized, learning disabilities may result not only in poor classroom performance but also in low self-esteem and disruptive behaviour. Normal intelligence, low self-esteem and disruptive behaviour indicate that a learning disability is not only a mental problem but also a social problem.

A child's disruptive behaviour or low self-esteem can be cured not only by personal psychiatrists but also by proper social environment in the class created by the teacher. Neurology as the scientific study of nerves and their diseases in addition to social adjustment are to help the learning-disabled to overcome their learning disabilities. Children with learning disabilities require highly specialized techniques, usually on an individual basis.

Learning disability - необучаемость; indicate – служить признаком; означать: subnormal intelligence – ниже нормального в умственном развитии; learning-disabled - неспособный к обучению; neurological - неврологический; process language or figures- работать с языком или с цифрами; diagnose - ставить диагноз; enroll - вносить в список; poor classroom performance- показывать низкие знания на уроке; никак себя не проявлять в классе; performance- проявление (нрава, характера); lowself-esteem- низкий уровень самооценки; disruptive - разрушительный; normal intelligence нормальные умственные способности; proper- надлежащий, подходящий; social environment- социальная среда; neurology - неврология; social adjustment- приспособление к окружающей социальной среде; teaching techniques for children with learning disabilities- методы обучения детей, неспособных к учёбе; deviant behaviour - девиантное / отклоняющееся поведение (поведение, противоречащее принятым в данном обществе правовым, нравственным, социальным и другим нормам, которое рассматривается большей частью членов общества как предосудительное и недопустимое; основные формы девиантного поведения: преступность, алкоголизм, наркомания, суицид; девиантное поведение носит не только негативный смысл (трудоголизм).

1) What mental problem may children have from birth? 2) What may learning disabilities be caused by? 3) What do learning disabilities affect? 4) The causes and nature of a learning disability are still not fully understood, aren't they? 5) The presence of a learning disability does not indicate subnormal intelligence, does it? 6) What do the learning-disabled have? 7) What may learning disabilities be diagnosed through? 8) What may learning disabilities result in? 9) What do normal intelligence, low self-esteem and disruptive behaviour indicate? 10) What can be cured by personal psychiatrists and by proper social environment in the class created by the teacher? 11) What can help the learning-disabled to overcome their learning disabilities? 12) What techniques do children with learning disabilities require?


Ex. II. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1) Children may have learning disabilities from childhood. 2) Illness and injury fail to cause learning disabilities. 3) Learning disabilities affect children's ability to think. 4) The causes of a learning disability are now completely understood. 5) The presence of a learning disability indicates subnormal intelligence. 6) The learning-disabled have difficulty reading and writing. 7) Learning disabilities are diagnosed through exams. 8) Learning disabilities result in deviant behaviour. 9) A learning disability is merely a social problem. 10) A child's disruptive behaviour can be cured exclusively by personal psychiatrists. 11) Nothing can help the learning-disabled to overcome their learning disabilities.


Ex. III. Rearrange these words to make sensible sentences.

1) A learning disability a mental problem that children may have from birth is. 2) Learning disabilities caused by illness or injury may be. 3) Learning disabilities children's ability to read, write, or calculate affect. 4) The causes and nature of a learning disability still not fully understood are. 5) It is widely agreed that the presence of a learning disability subnormal intelligence does not indicate. 6) It is thought that the learning-disabled a neurologically based difficulty in processing language or have figures. 7) Learning disabilities diagnosed through testing may be. 8) Learning disabilities poor classroom performance, low self-esteem, and disruptive behaviour may result in. 9) Normal intelligence, low self-esteem and disruptive behaviour that a learning disability is not only a mental problem but also a social problem indicate. 10) A child's disruptive behaviour or low self-esteem not only by personal psychiatrists but also by proper social environment in the class created by the teacher can be cured. 11) Neurology as the scientific study of nerves and their diseases in addition to social adjustment the learning-disabled to overcome their learning disabilities are to help. 12) Children with learning disabilities highly specialized techniques, usually on an individual basis require.


Ex. IV. Translate the following words and phrases from Russian into English.

Нормальные умственные способности; социальная среда; неврология; приспособление к окружающей социальной среде; методы обучения детей, неспособных к учёбе; девиантное поведение; необучаемость; ниже нормального в умственном развитии; неспособный к обучению; неврологический; ставить диагноз; показывать низкие знания на уроке; низкий уровень самооценки; разрушительный.


Ex. V. Complete the following sentences.

1) A learning disability is ... 2) Learning disabilities may be caused by ... 3) Learning disabilities affect children's ability to ... 4)... are still not fully understood. 5) It is widely agreed that... 6) It is thought that ... 7) Learning disabilities may be diagnosed through ... 8) Learning disabilities may result in ... 9) Normal intelligence, low self-esteem and disruptive behaviour indicate that ... 10) A child's disruptive behaviour or low self-esteem can be cured ... 11)... are to help the learning-disabled to overcome their learning disabilities. 12) Children with learning disabilities require ...

Ex.VI. Choose one topic to speak about a) learning disability as a mental problem; b) learning disability as a social problem.
Ex.VII. Retell the text THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES.
3.4 THE EDUCATION OF GIFTED OR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN
For the gifted and the mentally retarded, the primary criterion of identification is an intelligence test. If the child is high (for the gifted, generally above 125 IQ) or low (for the mentally retarded, below 75), he is considered for the special program. The determination is made by psychologists who in most cases must certify the child for eligibility for special programs.

The education of gifted ['giftid] or mentally retarded children – обучение одарённых или умственно отсталых детей; intelligence test – испытание умственных способностей; IQ [ai 'kju:j = intelligence quotient – показатель умственных способностей(your level of intelligence, measured by a special test, with 100 being the average result: an IQ of 130; psychologist [sai'kolad3ist] - психолог; certify – выдавать свидетельство; eligibility [elid3i'biliti] - годность.


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