Методические указания по изучению английского языка для специальности 270205. 65 «автомобильные дороги и аэродромы» - shikardos.ru o_O
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Методические указания по изучению английского языка для специальности 270205. 65 - страница №1/4



ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
СЕВЕРО-КАВКАЗСКИЙ ГОРНО- МЕТАЛЛУРГИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

(ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ )

____________________________________________________________

Кафедра иностранных языков

МЕТОДИЧЕСКие указания
по изучению английского языка
для специальности -270205.65

«автомобильные дороги и аэродромы»

ВЛАДИКАВКАЗ 2008
УДК 81.111

С о с т а в и т е л ь: Кабанова И.В.

Рецензент: Делиева Л.М.
Методические указания предназначены для студентов второго курса, обучающихся по специальности: «Автомобильные дороги и аэродромы» и рассчитаны на 2 семестра. Некоторые разделы (Traffic Control) пособия могут быть использованы студентами специальности «Организация безопасности дорожного движения».

Редактор:

Компьютерная верстка: Крыжановская И. В.

© Издательство «Терек» СКГМИ (ГТУ), 2008


Подписано в печать . Формат 6084 1/16. Объем усл. п. л.

Тираж экз. Заказ №

Изд-во «Терек» СКГМИ (ГТУ). Отпечатано в отделе оперативной полиграфии СКГМИ (ГТУ).

362021, Владикавказ, ул. Николаева, 44.



Оглавление
Введение………………………………………………………………4

Lesson 1 Road.INTRODUCTION……………………….………5

Lesson 2 TYPES OF ROADS. Highways…………………......7

Lesson 3 Urban Streets……………………………………..10

Lesson 4 Rural Roads…………………………………….....14

Lesson 5 ROADWAY ENGINEERING………………………....15

Lesson 6 BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS……………………...…18

Lesson 7 CONCRETE PAVEMENTS……………………….......24

Lesson 8 Road Junctions and Intersections………..28

Lesson 9 ROAD PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION……...33

Lesson 10 HISTORY OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION (PART 1…..38

Lesson 11 HISTORY OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION (PART 2)…27

Lesson 12 INTERSTATE HIGHWAY SYSTEMS in the U.S

THIS IS AMERICA - Route 66……………………..43



Lesson 13 A TALE OF FIVE CITIES ……………………………49

Text for additional reading:

DOES RUSSIA NEED THE SUPERHIGHWAY? …………………….52



Lesson 14 TRAFFIC CONTROL (PART 1)………………………55

Lesson 15 TRAFFIC CONTROL (PART 2)………………………58

Lesson 16 TRENDS IN TRAFFIC CONTROL…………………...61

Lesson 17 LISTENING PRACTICE: Blue Star.

A Driving Test.........................................................63



Lesson 18 A Road Accident………………………………….66

Lesson 19 SYDNEY’S TRAINS AND BUSES………….………..69

Lesson 20 AVOIDING GRIDLOCK………………………………72

SMASHING STEREOTYPES…………………………73



Texts for additional reading: AIRPORT. Airfields…..76


Введение
Цель данного пособия заключается в развитии умения читать специальную литературу средней сложности и извлекать из нее нужную для практики информацию и формировании у обучаемых навыков устной речи по профессиональной тематике. Этим определяется подбор учебных материалов, их расположение и характер тренировочных заданий.

Методические указания состоят из 20 уроков, объединенных единой тематикой и содержащих: текст, назначением которого является обучение чтению технической литературы специальности ««Автомобильные дороги и аэродромы», дополнительные тексты, устные и письменные упражнения на закрепление пройденного материала, поурочный словарь, а также большое количество иллюстраций.


Пособие предназначено для студентов 2 курса специальности «Автомобильные дороги и аэродромы», кроме того, раздел “Traffic Control” а также некоторые другие тексты могут быть использованы для изучения английского языка студентами специальности «Организация безопасности дорожного движения».

Lesson 1
Road



I.INTRODUCTION
Road, path established over land for the passage of vehicles, people, and animals. Roads provide dependable pathways for moving people and goods from one place to another. They range in quality from dirt paths to concrete-paved multilane highways.

Roads are used by various forms of transportation, such as trucks, automobiles, buses, motorcycles, and bicycles. Roads allow trucks to move goods from points of production, such as fields and factories, directly to markets and shopping centers. Private individuals rely on roads for safe and efficient automobile, motorcycle, and bicycle travel. Fire departments, medical services, and other government agencies depend on an organized system of roads to provide emergency services to the public in times of need.

The earliest roads evolved from animal paths and served as trails for early hunters. Paths eventually grew around primitive settlements, and as trade grew, longer routes were developed to transport food and other important materials. The use of wheeled vehicles encouraged construction of better roads. The roads built by the ancient Romans were carefully planned and solidly constructed.

Modern methods of road construction were first developed in the 18th century. Innovations of the time included waterproof surfaces and better drainage systems. Modern engineers make use of a variety of materials and construction techniques to build roads that can handle the high volumes and stresses of modern automobile and truck traffic. [5]


NEW WORDS & EXPRESSIONS
1. path - путь

2. dependable-надежный; заслуживающий доверия

3. highway- шоссе, магистраль

4. concrete-paved- бетонный

5. multilane highway-многополосная магистраль

6. truck-грузовой автомобиль

7. bus - автобус

8. motorcycle- мотоцикл

9. bicycle – велосипед

10. travel –путешествие, движение; перемещение

11. fire department - пожарное отделение

12.emergency service - неотложная помощь, скорая помощь

13. trail - тропа, тропинка

14. traffic - движение; транспорт

15. route-маршрут

16. wheel -колесо

17. vehicle - транспортное средство

18. waterproof surface- водонепроницаемая поверхность

19. to encourage-поощрить

20. drainage –дренаж

21. stress – нагрузка
1. Find equivalents to the following:


1.drainage

a) мотоцикл

2.truck

b) многополосная магистраль

3.path

c) дренаж

4.concrete-paved

d) путешествие, движение

5.fire department

e) водонепроницаемая поверхность

6.motorcycle

f) грузовой автомобиль

7.travel

g) колесо

8.multilane highway

h) бетонный

9.traffic

i) путь

10.wheel

j) пожарное отделение

11.waterproof surface

k) движение; транспорт


2. Agree or disagree with the following sentences:

1. Roads never provide dependable pathways for moving people.

2. Roads are used by various forms of transportation.

3. Romans never planned their roads.

4. Modern methods of road construction were first developed in the 18th century.

5. Modern engineers make use of a variety of materials and construction techniques to build roads.





Los Angeles Freeway

A complex freeway interchange near Los Angeles, California, shows a typical cloverleaf pattern that facilitates easy and safe route changing. Interstate freeways have limited access and maintain low gradient, straight routings for maximum long-range visibility and safety

JOKE

Miss Jones: “I hear your husband has bought a car”

Mrs. Evans: “No, he hasn’t got a car yet, but he is getting ready for it.”

Miss Jones: “Putting the garage up, I suppose?”

Mrs Evans: “Not yet, but he’s studying a book on motor repairing, he’s bought a towing rope, and we’ve both been insured.”

Lesson 2
II.TYPES OF ROADS


There are many different types of roads, from multilane freeways and expressways to two-way country roads. One important quality of a road is known as control of access. This term describes how vehicles are allowed to enter and exit a road. By controlling access to a road, the road can support more traffic at higher speeds. Roads can be classified into three broad categories: highways, urban or city streets, and rural roads. Each type of road controls access to different degrees. Each type also differs in location, the amount of traffic it can safely support, and the speed at which traffic can safely travel.
A.Highways
Highways are high-speed roads designed to connect major cities. There are many different types of highways. Highways differ primarily in the amount of access control they have and, therefore, in the amount of traffic they are designed to carry.

Highways with fully controlled access can handle the most traffic and are built to the highest construction standards. Interstate highways, freeways, and expressways are examples of fully controlled-access highways. Vehicles that enter or exit these types of highways can do so only at certain points along the highway, generally by using special entrance and exit ramps. The ramps allow vehicles to access the road without disturbing the flow of traffic. Incoming vehicles must merge with flowing traffic, and vehicles leaving the highway use exit ramps that guide them off the highway without blocking the traffic behind. Intersections with other roads are avoided by using either bridges known as overpasses to carry one roadway over another or short tunnel-like structures called underpasses to carry one roadway under another. Finished strips called shoulders on the edges of highways allow drivers of disabled vehicles to make repairs or await assistance without blocking traffic.

Highways with fully controlled access generally have two or more lanes for each direction of travel and often include medians (dividers in the middle of the road) to separate traffic moving in opposite directions. In Europe, highways with fully controlled access are called motorways, motor-routes, or autobahns.

Some highways offer only partial control of access. These types of highways handle less traffic than do highways with fully controlled access. Highways with partially controlled access may intersect other roads at the same level (called at-grade), rather than using overpasses or underpasses. Vehicles can enter highways with partially controlled access at intersections rather than using ramps. However, the right-of-way is often given to one direction of travel, rather than requiring all traffic to stop at the intersection (see Traffic Control). Giving the right-of-way to one direction of traffic helps keep traffic moving at higher speeds, although typically not at speeds as high as those on a highway with fully controlled access. One benefit of highways with partially controlled access is that they are much cheaper to construct than highways with fully controlled access. Many U.S. and state highways are roads with partially controlled access. [5]


NEW WORDS & EXPRESSIONS
1. freeway- автострада, многопутная дорога

2. expressway - скоростная автострада (Скоростная автомагистраль для транзитного автомобильного движения, как правило, платная [toll road], с ограниченным числом пунктов въезда-выезда [interchange] . Не имеет пересечений, полосы встречного движения обычно разделены газоном, либо перегородкой, иногда парковой полосой.)

3. two-way country roads-двусторонние проселочные дороги

4. high speed- высокая скорость

5. to control access — ограничивать въезд

6. urban or city street- городская улица

7. rural roads-сельские дороги

8. Interstate highway -федеральная автомагистраль (На маршрутном знаке [route signs] и на карте отмечена знаком в форме щита со словом [INTERSTATE] , номером и иногда названием штата, причем четные номера присвоены дорогам, идущим с востока на запад, а нечетные - с севера на юг. Например, федеральная автострада номер 95 [Interstate 95] - самая загруженная автомагистраль в США - идет от границы с Канадой в штате Мэн на севере до юга Флориды).

9. entrance - въезд ,вхождение

10. exit - выход , выезд ( с автомагистрали )

11. entrance ramp -пандуc (наклонный въезд на автомагистраль, съезд с автомагистрали), скат

12. to disturb- мешать, тревожить

13. flow of traffic- поток движения

14. intersection- пересечение , перекресток

15.overpass - эстакада; переезд

16.underpass - подземный ход; тоннель; подземный переход

17. to make repairs -сделать ремонт

18. disabled vehicles -выведенные из строя транспортные средства

19. shoulder -обочина дороги

20. highway median- центральная полоса автострады

21. motorway- автострада, автомагистраль

22. autobahn -автострада

23. right-of-way-преимущественное право движения
1. Answer the questions:

1. What does the term “control of access” describe?

2. What are highways?

3. How do we call the finished strips on the roads?

4. What is the difference between fully controlled access and partial control of access?

5. What are the benefits of highways with partially controlled access ?



2. Найдите в правой колонке перевод английских слов:


1.shoulder

a) центральная полоса автострады

2.expressway

b) автострада, автомагистраль

3.highway median

c) обочина дороги

4.disabled vehicles

d) скоростная автострада

5.exit

e) пересечение

6.motorway

f) выход , выезд

7.overpass

g) выведенные из строя транспортные средства

8. entrance

h) подземный ход; тоннель

9. underpass

i) въезд

10.intersection

j) эстакада; переезд

Lesson 3


B. Urban Streets
Urban streets, which cover cities, towns, and most suburbs, allow vehicles to access properties such as homes and businesses. Urban streets are used by private motor vehicles, public transportation, bicycle traffic, and pedestrians. Urban streets also accommodate underground public-utility facilities, such as electrical wiring, water and sewage pipes, and telecommunications lines. In addition, these streets must often be built around existing buildings and other barriers, such as parks and rivers. Rather than shoulders, urban streets usually have raised edges called curbs, which provide a barrier between the street and the adjoining property or sidewalk.

Urban streets are generally two-way paved roads that intersect each other frequently, allowing a high degree of access but at slow speeds. Traffic lights and signs help regulate the movement of vehicles along these streets and control the access to some streets. Urban streets are usually classified as one of three types: local, collector, and arterial. These designations are based on the amount of traffic each type is designed to carry.

Most urban streets are residential, or local, streets that allow vehicles to access public and private property. These streets make up 70 percent of total urban-road mileage but handle only 14 percent of all urban traffic. Collector streets convey traffic from residential streets to larger roads called arterials. Arterials are used to get quickly from one point to another and can accommodate high volumes of traffic. In large cities, arterials are often similar to highways in construction even though they are located within city limits. Although arterials account for only 17 percent of the urban-road mileage, they account for most of the traffic in cities. [5]


Did you know?

(В большинстве городов США единственным видом транспорта является частный легковой автомобиль. Общественный транспорт(public transportation)существует главным образом в крупных городах, это прежде всего автобус; в Вашингтоне, Нью-Йорке, Бостоне, Филадельфии и Чикаго помимо этого существует метро, а также ходят пригородные поезда [commuter train] . В Сан-Франциско и Питтсбурге действуют линии троллейбуса, а в Сан-Франциско еще и трамвай [ streetcar ] и фуникулер [ cable car ] . В Чикаго, Нью-Йорке и Филадельфии все еще эксплуатируется "надземка" [ L , elevated railroad ] . При отелях и в аэропортах обычно дежурят такси. Кроме того, практически во всех аэропортах можно найти пункт проката автомобилей.) [1]



NEW WORDS & EXPRESSIONS
1. suburb - окраина, пригород

2. property - имущество; собственность

3. private motor vehicles-частные автомобили

4. public transportation -городской (общественный) транспорт

5. pedestrian – пешеход

6. electrical wiring — электропроводка

7. sewage pipes- канализационные стоки

8. curb- обочина, бордюрный камень

9. sidewalk-тротуар

10. slow speed -малая скорость

11. traffic light- светофор

12. traffic signs - дорожные знаки

13. to regulate the movement-регулировать движение

14. local road-локальная (местная дорога), движение в пределах одной транспортной линии

15. arterial road-магистраль

16. designation -обозначение, называние, указание

17. mileage - расстояние в милях; число (пройденных) миль; пробег автомобиля (в милях)

18. volume-объем, масштаб



19. limit- ограничение
1. Agree or disagree with the following sentences:

  1. Urban streets, which cover cities, towns, and most suburbs, allow vehicles to access properties such as homes and businesses.

  2. Traffic lights and signs help to regulate the movement of vehicles along the streets and control the access to some streets

  3. Urban streets are usually classified as one of three types: underpasses, sidewalks and highways.

  4. Arterials are often similar to highways in construction


2. Найдите в правой колонке перевод английских слов:

1.

sewage pipes

a) имущество; собственность

2.

sidewalk

b) канализационные стоки

3.

property

c) малая скорость

4.

limit

d) тротуар

5.

arterial road

e) пешеход

6.

slow speed

f) ограничение

7.

pedestrian

g) обочина, бордюрный камень

8.

traffic light

h) магистраль

9.

curb

i) ) светофор


3. Найдите в правой колонке перевод английских слов:

1.

concrete-paved

a) многополосная магистраль

2.

multilane highway

b) маршрут

3.

urban or city street

c) бетонный

4.

fire department

d) сельские дороги

5.

route

e) водонепроницаемая поверхность

6.

waterproof surface

f) пересечение, перекресток

7.

rural roads

g) городская улица

8.

entrance

h) пожарное отделение

9.

intersection

i) обочина дороги

10.

shoulder

j) въезд ,вхождение





Freeways

A multilane freeway system in Los Angeles, California, has several entrance and exit ramps so vehicles can enter and exit traffic smoothly. When routes cross one another, one of the routes will be elevated so that intersections are avoided[1]

Lesson 4


C.Rural Roads
Rural roads are found in areas of the country outside cities, towns, and suburbs. Rural roads are also classified as local, collector, or arterial roads. Because of the light traffic and extensive mileage on these roads, design standards are relatively low. Rural roads may or may not have shoulders.

Local rural roads, which make up 69 percent of all rural roads, provide access to individual properties and farms. In many areas, local rural roads may be unpaved gravel roads. Two travel lanes, one for each direction of travel, can accommodate normal traffic on local rural roads. Rural collector roads, which make up 23 percent of all rural roads, carry moderate traffic coming in from a number of local roads. Collector roads have more and faster traffic than local roads and are constructed to a higher standard of quality.

Rural arterial roads provide a high-speed network for heavier traffic between major towns in rural areas. They range from two-lane roadways to multiple-lane highways. These roadways are designed to carry more traffic than collector roads can and are usually constructed to even higher standards than rural collector roads are. Rural arterial roads often have finished shoulders and may have more than one lane in each direction. These roads make up 8 percent of total rural-road mileage. [5]
NEW WORDS & EXPRESSIONS
1. outside -снаружи, извне; вовне, наружу

2. light traffic небольшое движение, движение с небольшим количеством транспорта.

3. heavy traffic интенсивное, плотное движение

4. moderate traffic- умеренное движение

5. extensive - громадный, большой

6. design standard проектно-конструкторский стандарт

7. provide – обеспечивать

8. gravel road-гравийная дорога

9. lane –полоса движения

10. direction – направление

11. network - сеть

12. to accommodate- обеспечивать,



1. Найдите в правой колонке перевод английских слов:

1.

traffic regulations

a) полоса движения

2.

private motor vehicles

b) поток движения

3.

(street) traffic

c) небольшое движение

4.

underpass

d) мешать, тревожить

5.

lane

e) подземный ход; тоннель

6.

to make repairs

f) правила уличного движения

7.

to disturb

g) тротуар

8.

light traffic

h) уличное движение

9.

flow of traffic

i) сделать ремонт

10.

pedestrian

j) малая скорость

11.

sidewalk

k) общественный транспорт

12.

traffic light

l) частные автомобили

13.

sewage pipes

m) обочина

14.

curb

n) светофор

15.

slow speed

o) пешеход

16.

public transportation

p) канализационные стоки


2. Make up five questions to the text.

Lesson5


III. ROADWAY ENGINEERING
To support heavy vehicles moving at high speeds, a modern road is made up of several layers. Each layer helps the layers above it support the weight and pressure of moving traffic. Roads that carry more traffic at higher speeds, like highways, are built to stronger standards than roads that carry less traffic, such as rural collector roads. The number of layers in a road often depends on the intended use of the road, but generally roads have three distinct layers. From bottom to top, the layers are the roadbed, the base course, and the wearing course.
A.Roadbed

The roadbed is the very bottom layer of a road. Natural soil is the most common roadbed material. The roadbed is shaped to make a smooth, level surface that will support the layers built over it. Engineers use bulldozers and other construction equipment to distribute soil evenly along the roadbed. If a road is planned through an area where the natural landscape is uneven, soil can be removed or filled in as needed to obtain a level surface.


B.Base Course

The base course rests directly on top of the roadbed and is often made up of compacted gravel. If the roadbed material itself is suitable, it may be treated, or stabilized, and used as the base. Soil can be stabilized by adding or mixing materials such as calcium chloride, bituminous material, lime, or portland cement to the soil. For very inexpensive, light-traffic roads, stabilized soil alone can suffice as the finished road surface. Drainpipes are usually installed within the base course to control rain and moisture drainage. Without adequate drainage, roads may buckle or collapse as water swells the ground underneath. Some roads include a second base layer, called the top course, for extra support.


C.Wearing Course

A road’s top layer, which directly supports moving vehicles, is called the wearing course. It is made of a solid layer of pavement and is designed to be smooth and to withstand erosion from traffic and weather. Two main types of pavements are used—bituminous, or flexible, pavement and concrete, or rigid, pavement. Bituminous pavement is cheaper and easier to construct, but it requires more maintenance. Concrete pavement lasts for a very long time with minimal upkeep but is much more expensive and time-consuming to build.


NEW WORDS & EXPRESSIONS

1. layer-слой

2. distinct layer- отдельный слой

3. flexible-гибкий

4. roadbed-дорожное полотно, земляное полотно ( автодороги )

5. base course-подстилающий слой дорожного покрытия,слой основания

6. wearing course-поверхность износа ,слой износа дорожного покрытия

7. level surface – ровная поверхность

8. construction equipment - строительное оборудование

9. to distribute soil-распределять почву

10. landscape - ландшафт

11. compacted gravel-уплотненный гравий

12. bituminous-битумный

13. lime-известь

14. drainpipes-водосточные трубы

15. moisture drainage-дренаж влажности

16. concrete-бетон

17. to collapse-разрушаться

18. to swell-разбухать

19. to withstand erosion-противостоять эрозии



20. pavement-дорожное покрытие
1. Agree or disagree with the following sentences:

  1. Modern road is made up of two layers.

  2. The roadbed is the very bottom layer of a road.

  3. If a road is planned through an area where the natural landscape is uneven, soil cannot be removed or filled in.

  4. A road’s top layer, which directly supports moving vehicles, is called the wearing course.

  5. Drainpipes are usually installed within the roadbed to control rain and moisture drainage.






Road Surface Cutaways

Flexible and rigid pavements each contain several different layers of materials. The layers below combine to support the traffic moving along on the surface layer, which is known as the wearing course. Asphalt makes up the wearing course of flexible pavement and is often found on residential streets in cities. Rigid pavement made of concrete is more durable and is a popular choice for highway construction.

2. Answer the questions:

  1. What are the layers a modern road is made up of?

  2. What does the number of layers in a road often depend on?

  3. What is the function of the wearing course?


3. Найдите в правой колонке перевод английских слов:

1.

concrete

a) водосточные трубы

2.

lime

b) слой

3.

drainpipes

c) дорожное покрытие

4.

pavement

d) подстилающий слой дорожного покрытия,слой основания

5.

moisture drainage

e) бетон

6.

distinct layer

f) строительное оборудование

7.

bituminous

g) ровная поверхность

8.

roadbed

h) известь

9.

level surface

i) отдельный слой

10.

flexible

j) дренаж влажности

11.

landscape

k) поверхность износа, слой износа дорожного покрытия

12.

wearing course

l) битумный

13.

layer

m) дорожное полотно, земляное полотно (автодороги )

14.

base course-

n) ландшафт

15.

construction equipment

o) гибкий

Lesson 6


C1.Bituminous Pavement
Bituminous pavements are made with by-products of petroleum, such as asphalt. Weather and seasonal changes can cause roadways and the earth below them to rise or fall slightly. As these natural shifts occur, bituminous pavements allow the road surface to bend or flex slightly without breaking.

Bituminous material softens when heated and can be prepared and applied in a wide range of concentrations. Thin layers of bituminous material are sometimes applied with a pressure sprayer to the base course or the top course. The bituminous material seeps into the crushed rock and penetrates the tiny spaces between the compacted rocks, binding the aggregate together. To provide traction for moving traffic, a thin layer of aggregate may then be spread over the bituminous material and compacted.

Asphalt, a thick bituminous material, can be used directly as a pavement. Asphalt can be applied in thin overlays less than 2 cm (0.75 in) deep or in layers several centimeters deep, depending on the type of surface and its purpose. Asphalt is commonly mixed with aggregates for added strength and traction. The asphalt and aggregates are usually mixed and heated at a central location. The material is then transported to the construction site, where it is spread directly over the base course or top course and compacted. Asphalt surfaces are fairly easy to construct and repair. [3]
NEW WORDS & EXPRESSIONS
1. bituminous pavement –битумное покрытие

2. by-product - побочный продукт

3. petroleum-нефть

4. to break -разламываться, разрушаться; разбиваться

5. pressure sprayer-пневматический разбрызгиватель, напорный распылитель

6. crushed rock - щебень

7. to penetrate-проникать

8. aggregate- заполнитель

9. to seep-просачиваться

10. rock-грунт, камень, порода

11. tiny-крошечный

12. overlay-верхний слой

13. to mix - мешать, смешивать

14. strength - прочность; крепость

15. traction -1) тяга; тяговое усилие, сила тяги 2) сила сцепления (напр. шины с дорогой )

16. construction site – стройплощадка



17. surface-поверхность
1. Agree or disagree with the following sentences:

  1. Bituminous pavements are made with by-products of petroleum.

  2. Bituminous material hardens when heated.

  3. Asphalt surfaces are not easy to construct and repair.

  4. Asphalt can not be used directly as a pavement.

2. Найдите в правой колонке перевод английских слов:

1.

overlay

a) верхний слой

2.

bituminous pavement

b) щебень

3.

crushed rock

c) нефть

4.

petroleum

d) крошечный

5.

pressure sprayer

e) битумное покрытие

6.

to penetrate

f) пневматический разбрызгиватель, напорный распылитель

7.

to mix

g) грунт, камень, порода

8.

rock

h) заполнитель

9.

strength

i) проникать

10.

aggregate

j) мешать, смешивать

11.

tiny

k) прочность; крепость






Steamroller (каток)

A steamroller is used to flatten materials such as hot asphalt to build roads. With its drums, or large heavy rollers, it compresses the asphalt while its water tanks apply water to cool the surface.

  • windshield - переднее стекло

  • water tank- бак для воды

  • drum –вал, каток

  • fuel tank - топливный бак; бензобак



3. Найдите в правой колонке перевод английских слов:

1.

light traffic

a) гравийная дорога

2.

heavy traffic

b) полоса движения

3.

gravel road

c) небольшое движение

4.

direction

d) подстилающий слой дорожного покрытия

5.

lane

e) умеренное движение

6.

layer

f) дорожное покрытие

7.

roadbed

g) ровная поверхность

8.

base course

h) направление

9.

wearing course

i) слой

10.

level surface

j) поверхность износа

11.

pavement

k) дорожное полотно

12.

moderate traffic

l) интенсивное, плотное движение

Lesson7


C2.Concrete Pavement
Concrete, or rigid, pavements are made from a mix of portland cement and aggregate. Concrete pavements have a long life and require little maintenance. Concrete is generally laid as a single thick layer directly over a base course. For heavily traveled roads, concrete layers can range in thickness from 20 to 36 cm (8 to 14 in). Concrete is usually laid in long sections or slabs of varying length. Metal bars or dowels inserted into the edges of the slabs help connect the joints where one slab ends and another begins.

Concrete is a strong material and can withstand compression, but it has poor tensile strength (resistance to being pulled). When the ground underneath expands and contracts from seasonal or weather changes, the concrete becomes prone to cracking. Cracks can occur at or near the joints where concrete slabs meet or on the slabs themselves. Deep cracks can allow the broken concrete slabs to move upward or downward, creating an uneven road surface. Metal bars or dowels inserted between the slabs help hold the slabs together. Reinforced concrete contains steel bars or mesh imbedded within the concrete layer. The steel helps hold concrete together over time, even if cracks occur. Unreinforced concrete may be used when cost is a factor, or where weather conditions are more mild. Unreinforced slabs have several shallow grooves cut into them, allowing the concrete to crack at defined points. The cracked slabs are kept in place by pressure and by the grainy texture of the concrete itself.







Cross sections of modern pavements

(Left) Flexible asphalt-based pavement. (Right) Rigid portland-cement concrete pavement.



NEW WORDS & EXPRESSIONS
1. rigid - твердый

2. maintenance - содержание и техническое обслуживание, уход; текущий ремонт

3. section-сегмент

4. slab-плита дорожного покрытия

5. bar-стержень,брус

6. dowel-стыковой штырь

7. joint-соединение, стык

8. compression-сжатие

9. tensile strength-прочность на растяжение

10. crack – трещина, to crack – ломаться, трескаться

11. mesh- арматурная сетка

12. reinforced concrete-железобетон

13. unreinforced concrete - неармированный бетон

14. to embed- вмонтировать; вставлять; встраивать

15. groove-паз, желоб

16. grain-зерно



1. Answer the questions:

  1. What are concrete, or rigid, pavements made from?

  2. What are concrete pavements advantages?

  3. Haw do seasonal or weather changes affect concrete?

  4. What does reinforced concrete contain?


2. Agree or disagree with the following sentences:

  1. Concrete pavements are made from a mix of portland cement and aggregate.

  2. Concrete layers can range in thickness from 50 to 90 cm.

  3. Concrete is a strong material, but it can not withstand compression.


3. Найдите в правой колонке перевод английских слов:

1.

rigid

a) плита дорожного покрытия

2.

slab

b) стыковой штырь

3.

grain

c) сжатие

4.

reinforced concrete

d) паз,желоб

5.

dowel

e) зерно

6.

compression

f) текущий ремонт

7.

to embed

g) железобетон

8.

maintenance

h) неармированный бетон

9.

groove

i) прочность на растяжение

10.

crack

j) вмонтировать; вставлять

11.

mesh

k) стержень,брус

12.

tensile strength

l) трещина

13.

bar

m) твердый

14.

unreinforced concrete

n) арматурная сетка

Lesson 8


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