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Английский язык
Методические указания

к практическим занятиям

Для студентов, обучающихся по направлению

подготовки 280700 – «Техносферная безопасность»
Часть II

Составитель И. В. Сергеева



Владикавказ 2014

Министерство образования и науки рф
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования


«Северо-Кавказский горно-металлургический институт

(государственный технологический университет)»
Кафедра иностранных языков
Английский язык
Методические указания

к практическим занятиям

Для студентов направления

подготовки 280700 – «Техносферная безопасность»


Часть II

Составитель И. В. Сергеева


Допущено

редакционно-издательским советом

Северо-Кавказского горно-металлургического института

(государственного технологического университета).

Протокол заседания РИСа № 26 от 17.12.2013 г.


Владикавказ 2014

УДК 811.111

ББК 81.2Англ.

С32
Рецензент:

кандидат филологических наук, профессор

Северо-Кавказского горно-металлургического института

(государственного технологического университета

Делиева Л. М.
С32 Английский язык: Методические указания к практическим занятиям. Для студентов, обучающихся по направлению подготовки 280700 «Техносферная безопасность». Часть II / Сост.: И. В. Сергеева; Северо-Кавказский горно-металлургический институт (государственный технологический университет). – Владикавказ: Северо-Кавказский горно-металлургический институт (государственный технологический университет). Изд-во «Терек», 2014. – 29 с.
Методические указания предназначены для обучения студентов чтению и переводу специальной литературы. Тексты, заимствованные из отечественной и зарубежной литературы, содержат информацию, необходимую для студентов специальности «Техносферная безопасность»: о видах, причинах и способах ликвидации различных стихийных бедствий, a также чрезвычайных ситуаций, возникших по вине человека.
УДК 811.111

ББК 81.2Англ.

Редактор: Хадарцева Ф. С.

Компьютерная верстка: Куликова М. П.
 Составление. ФГБОУ ВПО «Северо-Кавказский

горно-металлургический институт

(государственный технологический университет)», 2014

 Сергеева И. В., составление, 2014

Подписано в печать 13.03.2014. Формат 60х84 1/16. Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура «Таймс». Печать на ризографе. Усл. п.л. 1,69. Тираж 50 экз. Заказ № .

Северо-Кавказский горно-металлургический институт (государственный

технологический университет). Издательство «Терек».

Отпечатано в отделе оперативной полиграфии СКГМИ (ГТУ).

362021, г. Владикавказ, ул. Николаева, 44.

Contents


Part II. People’s Hazards

Unit I. Air accidents

Unit II. Nature pollution

Unit III. Air contamination

Unit IV. Electrical hazards

Unit V. Noise

Литература



4

4

9



14

20

25



29



Part II. People’s Hazards
Unit I
Grammar: Participle I and Gerund.

Word-formation: suffix -ee.

Speaking: Human factor in accidents.
Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:

failure

['feIljə]

авария, повреждение, отказ в работе, остановка

fatigue

[fə'tI:g]

усталость (металла)

rudder

['rʌdə] ав. руль (направления)

flap

ав. закрылок

slat

ав. предкрылок

spoiler

ав. щиток поперечного управления

steering

рулевое управление

to slam

хлопать, ударяться

to erupt

прорываться, возникать

navigator

мор. ав. штурман

to decipher

[dI'saIfə] расшифровывать

bump

(глухой) удар

witnessing

погружение, увязание

landing gear

шасси

mound

насыпь, холм

to miss

пропустить, промахнуться

landing strip

посадочная полоса

to verify

проверять, удостоверять


Vocabulary development: word building

Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words:

verb

noun

(abstract)



noun

(person)


adjective

to fail

failure





to occur

occurrence





to detect

detector

detection



detective



to survive

survival

survivor



to contribute

contribution

contributor

contributory

to execute

execution

executor

executive

to employ

employment

employer

employee




to navigate

navigation

navigability



navigator

navigable

to verify

verification



verifiable


Text

Air асcidents

On 19 July 1989 United Airlines Flight 232 experienced the failure of a rear engine while en route from Denver to Chicago. The failure occurred because a fatigue crack in the engine went undetected, resulting in the loss of all three hydraulic systems. In landing the plane, the pilots had no control of the aircraft’s rudder, leading edge flaps, slats or wing spoilers (to slow them down). Once on the ground, they had no steering, nose wheel or tail control, and no brakes. Despite of all these difficulties, 184passengers and crew survived. This was because the surrounding communities were prepared to respond to a practised, organized, updated emergency plan. There were five factors that contributed to the degree of success: luck, communication, preparation, execution, and co-operation.

Not long ago, on 18 May 2005 a small two-engine An-24 carrying 52 people, most of them employers of Lukoil subsidiaries, crashed upon landing, killing 28 people in what has been initially described as a tragic result of pilot error. The Soviet – designed turbo-prop airlines crashed in the Artic village after its tail fell apart over the landing ground. As the plane slammed into the ground, a massive fire erupted on board which caused most of the deaths.

Five crew members were among the 24 people that survived the crash. The pilot and the navigator were both killed. Emergency ministry officials said that 10 out of the 24 survivors were in critical condition, but later their lives were no longer at risk. The black boxes for the flight have been discovered and while the cause of the crash can be established only once they are deciphered, experts say that the most likely cause was pilot error.

Survivors described a bump as the plane’s wing crashed against the ground, then fire spread through the cabin. Others remembered witnessing the plane’s landing gear hitting several mounds of sand before crashing. Many agreed that the aircraft had been flying unusually low. One of the versions more is that the pilots missed the landing strip, and flew over it again at a lower altitude. To these may be added that there is a long chain of middlemen making it nearly impossible to verify the technical safety of the craft.
Grammar study: learn grammar peculiarities of the text


  1. Past Indefinite Active употребляется для выражения действия, совершившегося или совершавшегося в прошлом. Образуется это время с помощью прибавления к основе смыслового глагола окончания -ed (для правильных глаголов). Past Indefinite переводится на русский язык прошедшим временем глагола как совершенного, так и несовершенного вида.

Sample: the failure occurred – произошла поломка;

the plane crashed - самолет упал.


  1. См. Grammar Study Section III, Part I.

Sample: surrounding communities – окружающие подразделения,

plane carrying the people – самолет, перевозящий людей.

Кроме того, в тексте встречается другая -ing форма глагола – Gerund (см. пункт 2, Grammar Study, Part I, Introduction.).



Sample: landing gear – шасси;

landing strip – посадочная полоса.

В функции определения их нужно различать: Participle I означает свойство или состояние лица или предмета, совершающего действие, а Gerund – свойство предмета, предназначенного для совершения действия.

Ср.: writing student – пишущий студент

writing desk – письменный стол.
Exercise 2. Define the forms of the -ing words from the text and translate them into Russian:

resulting, landing, leading, steering, surrounding, carrying, killing, witnessing, crashing, making.


Exercise 3. Insert the proper words into the sentences:

  1. (При приземлении) the plane, the pilots had no control of the rudder.

  2. Despite of the difficulties, all the passengers (выживать).

  3. The Flight (упал) when experienced (поломка двигателя).

  4. (Поломка происходит) because of (усталостная трещина) in the engine.

  5. (Обслуживающие подразделения) were prepared to respond to (аварийная ситуация).

  6. There are several factors (способствующих) to success.

  7. A massive fire (возникать, разразиться) on board after slamming the plane into the ground.

  8. (Черные ящики) have been discovered and (расшифровывать).

  9. It is nearly impossible (достоверно установить) the technical safety of the craft.

  10. One of the versions is that the pilots (пропустили взлетную полосу) and flew over it again at a lower altitude.


Exercise 4. Translate into English:

  1. Причиной несчастных случаев может быть не только техническая поломка, но и ошибка человека.

  2. Причина происшествия из-за небрежности или невнимательности человека называется человеческим фактором.

  3. Поломки узлов самолета часто приводят к гибели людей.

  4. Такие мероприятия, как правильная организация полетов, техническое обслуживание и подготовка персонала, помогают избегать несчастных случаев.

  5. Только строгое соблюдение правил на воздушном транспорте может способствовать безопасности полетов.


Exercise 5. Read the text without dictionary:

8 killed in plane crash near Moscow

Eight people were killed when a Cessna business plane crashed and burst into flames near Moscow, probably due to bad weather, the authorities reported.

Besides its two-member crew, the aircraft carried the sons of a State Duma deputy (the plane’s co-owner) and former head of Voronezh Municipal Committee, and their four friends after a hunting trip in Voronezh woods.

“Violations of flight regulations” were named by as the probable cause of the crash according to authorities: the plane was caught in a snow blizzard and the pilot had ignored the weather report. The plane caught fire during the fall. The two crew and six passengers were killed when the plane hit the ground.



Speaking:

Exercise 6. Make an abstract of two texts, using key vocabulary and tell about:

    1. how did the accident happen;

    2. how many people perished;

    3. what were weather conditions during the flight;

    4. what reason is considered to be the cause of the accident.


Checklist for Section I

  1. What is the difference between Participle I and Gerund?

  2. What is the difference between the words employer and employee?

  3. What technical failures can cause an air accident?

  4. What human factors can lead to an air accident?


Unit II
Grammar: Participle II as an attribute.

Word-formation: suffix -ant.

Speaking: Pollution of the environment.
Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:

pollution

[pə'lu:ən] загрязнение

environment

[In'vaIərənment] окружающая среда

to release

[rI'lI:s] освобождать, выпускать

to tear up

[tεə] рвать, изнашивать

tip

место свалки

abuse

плохое обращение; злоупотребление;

неправильное употребление

(использование)


arable

['ærəbl] пáхотный (земля)

species

['spI: I:z] (sing. and pl.) – вид, род, порода

mammal

['mæməl] млекопитающее животное

extinction

[Iks'tIηkən] вымирание (рода)

conquer

['kɔηkə] завоевывать, покорять


Vocabulary development: word building

Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words:

verb

noun

(abstract)



noun

(person)


adjective

to pollute

pollution

pollutant









nature



natural



chemistry

chemicals



chemist

chemical

to injure

injurant

injury




injurious

to poison

poison

poisoner

poisonous

to damage

damage



damageable

to disappear

disappearance







extinction



extinct

to conquer

conquest

conqueror





Text

Nature pollution

For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment. Nature has served Man, and it seemed that natural riches were unlimited. We have upset nature’s sensitive equilibrium releasing harmful substances into the air, polluting rivers and oceans with industrial waste and tearing up the countryside to accommodate rubbish.

Pollution covers many things which can happen to the land, in towns and the country, because of our activities.

Rubbish tips, dumped poisonous chemicals, broken cars, thrown away bottles and dropped sweet papers are types of land pollution. Some types of land pollution except they are just unpleasant to look at, can be dangerous to people and to animals. Faun animals injure themselves on old tins and bottles. Young children are sometimes hurt while playing in broken – down cars. Small animals crawl into bottles and die because they cannot get out. Poisoned soil can make animals and people very ill.

There are many consequences of damaging the environment: acid rain, water shortage resulting from abuse of arable lands in agriculture, damage to wild-life. According to the International Union for the Protection of Nature 76 species of animals and some hundred species of plants have disappeared from the planet in the course of the last 60 years. 132 mammal and 26 bird species face extinction not so much due to hunting as due to the pollution of the biosphere.

In the 20th century with the rapid growth of science and technology human achievements in conquering nature became so great that man’s economic activities began to produce an increasingly negative effect on the biosphere.

In 1952 many people died in London as a result of air pollution. This pollution came from coal fires in fire-places and from power stations. It combined with the winter fog to form poisonous smog. Vast forests are cut and burnt in fire. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result a number of rivers and lakes dry up.

By now the pollution and poisoning of the soil, water and air have reached a critical level. Environmental pollution has become a significant obstacle to economic growth. The discharge of dust and gas into the atmosphere returns to the Earth in the form of “acid rains” and affects crop, the quality of forests, the amount of fish. To this can be added the rise of chemicals, radioactivity, noise and other types of pollution. Our duty is to help to prevent it.


Grammar study: Participle II в функции определения
См. пункт 2 Section II, Part I и Gerund – см. пункт 2, Grammar Study, Part I, Introduction.
Exercise 2. Translate Participle II in the word combinations:

dumped chemicals, broken cars, thrown away bottles, dropped papers, poisoned soils, damaged nature, conquered space, cut forest, upset balance, discharged harmful substance.


Exercise 3. Define the form of the -ing words in the text:

releasing, polluting, tearing up, damaging, resulting from, conquering.


Exercise 4. Insert the proper words into the sentences:

  1. Nature has served man and people lived in harmony with (окружающая среда).

  2. A lot of broken and thrown away things can (загрязнять) land.

  3. Both animals and people (получать повреждения) meeting old tins and broken bottles.

  4. There are many (последствия) of damaging (окружающая среда).

  5. For last several years (вымирание) of many (породы) of animals took place.

  6. The products of burning combined with the winter fog form (ядовитый смог).

  7. (Загрязнение окружающей среды) has become a significant (препятствие) to economic growth.

  8. (Выброс вредных газов) into the atmosphere badly effects the nature and people’s health.

  9. Our duty is to (предотвратить) (загрязнение) of nature.


Exercise 5. Translate into English:

  1. Люди нарушают равновесие в природе, выбрасывая вредные вещества в воздух, воду и почву.

  2. Бытовые и промышленные отходы наносят вред природе.

  3. В результате деятельности человека происходит загрязнение окружающей среды.

  4. Различные типы загрязнения не только неприятны на вид, но и опасны.

  5. Люди и животные, подвергающиеся воздействию загрязнителей, могут болеть и даже умирать.

  6. Из-за загрязнения биосферы многие виды животных и птиц исчезли.

  7. Бурная деятельность человека нанесла непоправимый ущерб природе.

  8. В результате обширной вырубки лесов нарушился кислородный баланс.

  9. Отравление почвы, воды, воздуха стало значительным препятствием экономического роста.

  10. Следует предотвратить загрязнение окружающей среды вредными газами, химикатами и радиоактивными веществами.


Exercise 6. Read the additional text with the help of the words:

depletion

[dI'plI:ən] истощение

diminishing

уменьшение

to call for

вызывать, быть причиной

to refine

очищать

sewage

['sju: Idჳ] сточные воды

purification

очистка

reservoir

['resəvwɑ:] водохранилище

basin

[beIsn] водоем, бассейн (реки)

internal combustion

engine

[kəm'bΛstən] двигатель внутреннего сгорания


to exhaust

[Ig'zɔ:st] выпускать (газ, пар)


The environment

The people all over the world are greatly concerned with the environment. The most important problems in this field are: the environmental pollution, ozone layer depletion, diminishing water resources.

The progress of mankind has turned into the threat to its health and life. The environmental pollution is called for the numerous industrial, chemical enterprises, which do not refine their wastes and in emergency cases have no sewage purification, the result of which is the pollution of reservoirs and water basins.

The problem of ozone depletion is also of great importance for the people. There is the urgent need to protect the Earth’s ozone layer. In this connection the international Protocol to protect the ozone layer was worked out by 35 countries in Montreal, Canada in 1987.


One of the sources of environmental pollution is automobile transport. The internal combustion engines which work on oil fuel exhaust a lot of harmful gases. The main task here is: to replace the conventional gasoline powered engines with pollution-free electrical ones. Moreover, the oil supplies are not unlimited and the people will have to look for other sources of energy. By this it is necessary to remember that the most important problems for protection of nature are the nuclear power stations.
Speaking:

Exercise 7. Make an abstract of both texts speaking on their main positions:

  1. the most important problems of environment;

  2. the reasons of environmental pollution;

  3. the problem of ozone layer depletion and its prevention;

  4. the task of preventing oil fuel exhaustion by automobile transport.


Checklist for Section II

  1. How is Participle II in the function of an attribute translated into Russian?

  2. What is the difference between the words pollution – pollutant and chemistry – chemicals?

  3. What are the sources of environmental pollution?

  4. What are the consequences of nature pollution?


Unit III
Grammar: Objective Infinitive Construction.

Word-formation: suffix -ant for nouns and adjectives.

Speaking: The problems of air contamination.
Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:

contamination

загрязнение

haze

[heIz] туман, дымка, мгла

irritant

раздражитель

emission

выделение, распространение

to encompass

окружать, заключать

to disrupt

разрывать, разрушать

evaporation

[I‚væpə'rəIən] испарение, парообразование

precipitation

выпадение осадков

to interfere

вмешиваться

breakdown

распад

availability

[ə'veIlə'bIlItI] наличие

implication

зд. отношение

yield

[jI: Id] урожай

to cite

ссылаться, цитировать

transboundary

межграничный, повсеместный,

глобальный




Vocabulary development: word building

Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words:

verb

noun

(abstract)



noun

(person)


adjective

contaminate

contamination





irritate

irritant

irritation





irritable

irritative



emit

emission



emissive

disrupt

disruption



disruptive

evaporate

evaporation

evaporator





evaporative

precipitate

precipitance

precipitation





precipitant

interfere

interference







avail

availability





available

implicate

implication



implicit

implicitly (adv)



Text

Air contamination

Haze and airborne dust – the visible portions of air pollution – were once seen as minor irritants, but they are gathering force like a coming storm. In August 2002, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) released “The Asian Brown Cloud: Climate and other Environmental Impacts”, which describes a “new scenario” of air pollution in South Asia, involving haze, smog, ozone and global warming. A little later the Asian Brown Cloud was ranked in terms of its implications for health, business and politics.

The term “Asian Brown Cloud” originally referred to a brownish soup of pollutants and particles over India from forest fires, the burning of farm wastes, and huge increases in emissions from vehicles, industries, and wood-burning cookstoves. But new satellite data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration show that the Asian Brown Cloud is part of a much larger-scale pollution event encompassing most of East and Southeast Asia. The haze is heaviest between December and May, the main home – heating season, but is getting worse year round.

The UNEP report was based largely on the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), conducted by scientists in the United States, India and Europe. INDOEX examined the movement of aerosols specifically over South Asia (comprising India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka). An INDOEX report suggested that aerosols in the haze could seriously disrupt the Earth’s cycle of evaporation and precipitation. By interfering with sunlight’s breakdown of hydroxyl radicals, the haze could affect water availability and crop production.

The UNEP report draws preliminary conclusions about air pollution effect on the South Asian environment and the implications for human health, agriculture, and climate change. For example, the report states that the haze reduces natural solar energy levels by about 10 %, with significant consequences for farm yields, namely for rice. The report also cites figures for deaths worldwide related to air pollution.

Indian scientists do not consider the Asians to be blame for pollution, Western countries have polluted the air for decades at far higher rates.

The most scientists agree that the report’s importance lies in the public recognition that it has stimulated, and say the problem of transboundary pollution is likely to grow. The director of observatories for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory says that this phenomenon is an international, integrated problem.

Grammar study: Objective Infinitive Construction

Объектный инфинитивный оборот состоит из подлежащего, сказуемого, дополнения, выраженного существительным в общем падеже или местоимением в объектном падеже, и инфинитива. При переводе на русский язык подлежащее и сказуемое становятся главным предложением, затем следует дополнительное придаточное предложение, в котором подлежащим становится существительное в общем падеже или местоимение в объектном, а сказуемым – инфинитив. Придаточное дополнительное предложение вводится союзами «что», «чтобы», «как». Объектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется после глаголов to want, to wish, to desire, to suppose, to expect, to consider, to assume, to believe, to observe, to watch, to see, to hear и др.



Sample: Scientists consider air contamination to be one of the reasons of bad health of the people. – Ученые считают, что загрязнение воздуха является одной из причин плохого здоровья людей.

Indian scientists do not consider the Asians to be blame for pollution. – Индийские ученые не считают, что азиатские страны виновны в загрязнении.

Сравните данный оборот с субъектным после неопределенно-личных оборотов it is said (говорят), it is known (известно), it seems (кажется), it is likely (вероятно): The most scientists say the problem of pollution is likely to grow. – Большинство ученых говорят, что проблема загрязнения, вероятно, будет увеличиваться.


Exercise 2. Define Infinitive Construction and translate the sentences into Russian:

  1. Air contamination is considered to be one of the reasons of bad health of people.

  2. Dust and exhausted gases are known to be the pollutants of air.

  3. Haze and global warming were reported to be a new factor of air pollution.

  4. People’s activity appears to cause global warming.

  5. The mankind seems to be unable to overcome the consequences of its activity.

  6. Emissions from vehicles and industrial enterprises are proved to be the serious danger of air pollution.

  7. The scientists note the data about nature pollution to grow.

  8. The ecologists observe the state of the nature to become worth.

  9. The scientific report supposes interfering into the water system to lead to disruption of Earth’s cycle of evaporation and precipitation.

  10. The authorities believe the problem of transboundary pollution to be recognized.


Exercise 3. Define the form of the -ing words in the text:

gathering, coming, involving, burning, encompassing, heating, getting, comprising, interfering.


Exercise 4. Insert the proper words into the sentences:

  1. The Asian Brown Cloud is a part of a large scale (загрязнение) (охватывающее) East and Southeast Asia.

  2. (Дымка) is the visible portion of air pollution.

  3. The scientists (исследовали) the movement of aerosols over South Asia (включая) India and Sri-Lanka.

  4. To Indian scientists’ opinion Western countries (загрязняли) the air for decades.

  5. The most scientists agree that the problem of (глобальное загрязнениe) should be recognized.

  6. The Climatic Laboratory says that this (явление) is an international, integrated problem.

  7. The United Nations Environment Programme report (приводит заключение) about air pollution effect and (его отношение) for human health.

  8. (Дымка) and airborne (пыль) cannot be seen as minor irritants any more.



Exercise 5. Translate into English:

  1. Термин «Asian Brown Cloud» первоначально относился к загрязнителям от лесных пожаров, сжигания сельскохозяйственного мусора, выхлопов автомобилей.

  2. Аэрозоли в дымке воздуха могут нарушить цикл испарения и выпадения осадков.

  3. Аэрозольная дымка снижает уровень солнечной энергии и таким образом влияет на урожаи.

  4. Индийские ученые не считают, что Азия виновна в загрязнении воздуха.

  5. В докладе ученых отмечается, что многие смерти соотносятся с загрязнением воздуха.

  6. Факторы загрязнения воздуха включают аэрозольную дымку, смог, озон и глобальное потепление.

  7. Загрязнение воздуха влияет на окружающую среду, здоровье людей, сельское хозяйство и изменение климата.

  8. Аэрозольная дымка может повлиять на наличие воды и получение урожая.

  9. Для борьбы с загрязнением окружающей природы были созданы некоторые структуры: Программа по изучению окружающей среды Организации Объединенных наций, Лаборатория диагностики и слежения за климатом.

  10. В результате исследований ученые приводят данные о последствиях загрязнения окружающей среды.


Exercise 6. Read the additional text paying attention to the words given below:

ambient

['æmbIənt] окружающий

trigger

стимулировать, вызывать

prevalence

['prevələns:] распространение

respirable

вдыхаемый

particulate

специфический, особый, определенный

coil

[kɔIl] виток, кольцо, змейка (дыма)

to vent

выпускать (дым)


Air contamination caused by human activity

Much of the research on factors affecting the respiratory diseases has been done in urban areas of developed countries. A number of studies have suggested that ambient air pollution can trigger these diseases. In many homes in developing countries a major source of exposure to indoor air pollutants is cooking smoke.

Increasing prevalence of diseases in both developed and developing countries has been a major public health challenge for more than two decades. Exposure to several specific air pollutants, such as respirable particulate matter, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been associated with increased respiratory diseases. Besides, household cleaning agents, pesticides, and mosquito coil smoke can be referred to environmental factors.

High volumes of a number of health-damaging airborne pollutants, including above-mentioned plus formaldehyde and dozens of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other organic matter generated indoors can be vented to the outside and pollute the air.



Speaking:

Exercise 7. Make the summary of two texts, using key vocabulary and tell about:

  1. what is haze;

  2. what organizations investigate the state of the air in the world;

  3. what are the reasons of air pollution;

  4. what the disruption of the Earth’s cycle can result in;

  5. who is blame for pollution;

  6. why the problem of air pollution should be recognized.


Checklist for Section III

        1. What is the structure and translation of Objective Infinitive Construction into Russian?

        2. What is the meaning of derived abstract nouns?

        3. What sources of air contamination are recognized in the world?

        4. What harmful factors of air contamination cause diseases?


Unit IV
Grammar: Participle I (the adverbial modifier of time).

Word-formation: suffixes of abstract nouns.

Speaking: The reasons and consequences of electrical hazards.
Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words

electrocution

[I‚lektrə′kju:ən] поражение электрическим током

to urge

[ə:dჳ] побуждать, убеждать, настаивать

circuit

[′sə:kIt] цепь, контур, схема

breaker

прерыватель

fire

зажигание

downed

поврежденный, выведенный из строя

fuse

запал

inadvertent

[‚Inəd′və:tənt] ненамеренный, неумышленный

backfeed

обратная связь

to shield

[I:′ld] защищать

caution

[′kɔ:ən] осторожность, предосторожность

to restore

восстанавливать

backup

обратная связь


Vocabulary development: word building

Exercise 1а. Translate the original and derivative words:

verb

noun

(abstract)



noun

(person)


adjective



electricity

electrician

electric

electrical



to break

breaker





to electrocute

electrocution





to shield

shielder





to caution

caution



cautionary

cautious




inadvertence

inadvertency





inadvertent

to restore

restoration

restorer

restorative

to energize

energy



energetic

Exercise 1b. В данном тексте встречаются производные слова со словообразовательным элементом – префиксом de-, который выражает значение противоположного действия.

Sample: to control – контролировать, to decontrol – отменять контроль; to ration – нормировать, to deration – отменять нормирование; to energize – снабжать, заряжать энергией, to de-energize – отключать, обесточивать.
Text

Electrical hazards

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has investigated several work–related electrocution deaths following natural disasters. To prevent future electrocutions, NIOSH urges those involved in cleanup activities to take the following steps:



  • if water has been present anywhere near electrical circuits and electrical equipment, turn off the power at the main breaker or fire on the service panel. Do not turn the power back on until electrical equipment has been inspected by a qualified electrician. Never enter flooded areas or touch electrical equipment if the ground is wet, unless you are certain that the power is off. Never handle a downed power line.

  • when using gasoline and diesel generators to supply power to a building, switch the main breaker or fuse on the service panel to the “off” position prior to starting the generator. This will prevent inadvertent energization of power lines from backfeed electrical energy from the generators, and help to protect utility line workers from possible electrocution.

  • if clearing or other work must be performed near a downed power line, contact the utility company to discuss de-energizing and grounding or shielding the power lines. Extreme caution is necessary when moving ladders and other equipment near overhead power lines to avoid inadvertent contact. If you are working on or near power lines, it is necessary to take into account that workers and employers must take extreme caution while attempting to restore power or clear areas near downed power lines. In one instance, a worker lost his life following Hurricane Hugo after removing trees from de-energized power line that had been knocked down by storm. While inspecting the completed work, the man stepped on the line and was electrocuted by “feedback” energy from a portable backup generator at a nearby gas station. Feedback energy occurs when a de-energized line becomes energized by a secondary power source.

A year later, another worker died cleaning branches from a power line, following a tropical storm. He was electrocuted after falling from a tree onto a line thought to be de-energized. Although the workers had opened a fused switch on a transformer, the line remained energized through another transformer.
Grammar study:
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