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Методические указания к практическим занятиям Для студентов направления подготовки - страница №1/2



Английский язык
Методические указания

к практическим занятиям

Для студентов направления

подготовки 280700 – «Техносферная безопасность»
Часть I

Составитель И. В. Сергеева



Владикавказ 2014

Министерство образования и науки рф
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования


«Северо-Кавказский горно-металлургический институт

(государственный технологический университет)»
Кафедра иностранных языков
Английский язык
Методические указания

к практическим занятиям

Для студентов направления

подготовки 280700 – «Техносферная безопасность»


Часть I

Составитель И. В. Сергеева


Допущено

редакционно-издательским советом

Северо-Кавказского горно-металлургического института

(государственного технологического университета).

Протокол заседания РИСа № 26 от 17.12.2013 г.


Владикавказ 2014

УДК 811.111

ББК 81.2Англ.

С32
Рецензент:

кандидат филологических наук, профессор

Северо-Кавказского горно-металлургического института

(государственного технологического университета

Делиева Л. М.
С32 Английский язык: Методические указания к практическим занятиям. Для студентов, обучающихся по направлению подготовки 280700 «Техносферная безопасность». Часть I / Сост.: И. В. Сергеева; Северо-Кавказский горно-металлургический институт (государственный технологический университет). – Владикавказ: Северо-Кавказский горно-металлургический институт (государственный технологический университет). Изд-во «Терек», 2014. – 32 с.
Методические указания предназначены для обучения студентов чтению и переводу специальной литературы. Тексты, заимствованные из отечественной и зарубежной литературы, содержат информацию, необходимую для студентов специальности «Техносферная безопасность»: о видах, причинах и способах ликвидации различных стихийных бедствий, a также чрезвычайных ситуаций, возникших по вине человека.
УДК 811.111

ББК 81.2Англ.

Редактор: Хадарцева Ф. С.

Компьютерная верстка: Куликова М. П.
 Составление. ФГБОУ ВПО «Северо-Кавказский

горно-металлургический институт

(государственный технологический университет)», 2014

 Сергеева И. В., составление, 2014

Подписано в печать 12.03.2014. Формат 60х84 1/16. Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура «Таймс». Печать на ризографе. Усл. п.л. 1,86. Тираж 50 экз. Заказ № .

Северо-Кавказский горно-металлургический институт (государственный технологический университет). Издательство «Терек».

Отпечатано в отделе оперативной полиграфии СКГМИ (ГТУ).

362021, г. Владикавказ, ул. Николаева, 44.



Contents


Part I. Natural Hazards

Introduction. General concepts on emergency



Unit I. Earthquake hits Indonesia and Solomon Islands

Unit II. The prediction of hurricanes and earthquakes

Unit III. Scientists warn: more bad storms on the way

Unit IV. Devastation caused by tsunami

Unit V. A European Sahara?

Литература




4

4

9



13

18

22



27

32



Part I. Natural Hazards
Introduction
General concepts on emergency
Grammar: Functions of Infinitive.

Word-formation: Parts of speech derived from the verb.

Speaking: Avoiding emergency damages.
Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:

to mitigate

['mItIgeIt]

смягчать, уменьшать, облегчать

consequence

['kכnsIkwəns]

(по) следствие

emergency

[I'mə:dɜənsI]

критическое положение, авария, чрезвычайная ситуация

circumstance

['sə:kəmstəns]

обстоятельство

explosion

[Iks'plouʒən]

взрыв

release

[rI'lI:s]

выход, освобождение

disruption

[dIstrΛptIon]

разрушение

identification

[aI¸dentIfI'keIɜən]

выяснение, установление

scenario, pl. -os

[sI'nɑ:rIou, -ouz]

сценарий, ход событий

failure

['feIljə]

авария, повреждение

breach

['brI:t∫]

нарушение


Vocabulary development: word building

With some words it is possible to create several new ones by adding suffixes or prefixes. Look at the samples:




verb

noun

(abstract)



noun

(person)


adjective



environment

environmentalist

environmental

to emerge

emergency



emergent



Exercise 1. Complete the table below, using a dictionary. Translate the original and derivative words:

verb

noun

(abstract)



noun

(person)


adjective

to explode

_______________



_____________

to disrupt

_______________




_____________

to fail

_______________





________________

identification





to rehearse

_______________






Text

Mitigating the emergency consequences

An emergency is a situation arising from an event or set of circumstances (such as an aircraft or rail accident, fire, explosion, radioactive or toxic release, major storm or flooding), which threatens or causes serious disruption to life, property, businesses or the environment. Emergency management is the process of mitigating threats and preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency.

Emergency management is a vast discipline that includes planning, hazard identification, mitigation, preparedness, training, testing and coordination. Proper and effective emergency management can only be done with a wideranging understanding and experience of the subject.

The process can be broken up into the following steps:



  • assess: identification and classification of all threats;

  • evaluate: assess likelihood and impact of each threat;

  • mitigate: identify actions that may reduce the risks in advance or mitigate the consequences;

  • prepare: plan for contingent operations;

  • respond: take the necessary actions to minimize the impact of the risks that materialize;

  • recover: return to normal as soon as possible.

The first step in any emergency plan is to identify what would constitute an emergency for a given business, workforce or local population. For example, in a nuclear facility a worst-case scenario might be a heavy aircraft crashing into the reactor containment building.

Other prominent threats would be external events such as fire or floods. Internal threats could be safety and control equipment failure, accidental criticality or loss of coolant. For other industries, the threats could include a breach of security, loss of workforce or loss of services.

The level of threat must then be evaluated. An understanding of how failures occur and progress can be a valuable tool. Once the hazards are identified, the risks prioritized and the failure scenarios developed, teams and persons responsible for each stage of events must be arranged.

In planning the response to an emergency, some of the key questions that need to be asked are:



  • communication: do the staff know one another, where the telephone is, what to say and if there is sufficient signage;

  • equipment: do the people who need access to safety equipment know where it is and how to use it; is it accessible at all times;

  • evacuation plan: do the staff know the alarms and how to respond, where the assembly points are and to whom they should report;

  • training: are key staff trained to understand and carry out the emergency procedures; do they have the necessary skills and experience; are the procedures rehearsed and who is responsible for the recovery process?

The recovery stage begins as soon as the consequences of the incident are known. Emergency management is a valuable tool, which if done systematically will enable an organization to reduce the likelihood of an emergency, mitigate its consequence, and ultimately recover. Although industrial accidents are less common, the threat of terrorist attack is growing. But by adopting these fundamental principles, the impact of emergencies can be minimized.
Grammar study: learn grammar peculiarities of the text.

  1. В данном тексте используется инфинитив в двух функциях: обстоятельства цели и именной части составного именного сказуемого. В первой из названных функций инфинитив отвечает на вопрос «зачем?», «для чего?», «с какой целью?» и переводится на русский язык со словами «чтобы, для того чтобы». Ex.: Take the necessary actions to minimize the impact of the risks… – Предпримите необходимые действия, чтобы свести к минимуму воздействие рисков….

В функции именной части составного сказуемого инфинитив употребляется в сочетании с глаголом-связкой to be, который переводится на русский язык словами «заключаться в том, чтобы» или «состоять в том, чтобы», a в настоящем времени глагол to be из перевода опускается. Ex.: The first step in any emergency plan is to identify what would constitute an emergency… – Первый шаг любого плана по чрезвычайным обстоятельствам заключается в том, чтобы определить, что могло бы считаться чрезвычайной ситуацией.

2. Обратите внимание на слова в тексте, являющиеся герундием. Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, выражающая название действия и обладающая свойствами глагола и существительного. Герундий может выполнять в предложении различные функции: подлежащего, именной части составного сказуемого, определения, дополнения и обстоятельств – времени, образа действия, сопутствующих обстоятельств, цели, условия. Признаками герундия являются – наличие перед ним предлога, притяжательного местоимения, существительного в притяжательном падеже. Герундий образуется путем прибавления окончания -ing к основе смыслового глагола и переводится на русский язык как существительным, так и глаголом:



Sample: mitigating – смягчение, уменьшение.
Exercise 2. Translate into Russian the forms of Gerund from the text:

flooding, preparing, responding, recovering, planning, training, testing, understanding, adopting.


Exercise 3. Insert the proper word into the sentence:

  1. An emergency is a situation which threatens by serious (разрушение) to life.

  2. Emergency planning is the way (уменьшение) threats.

  3. One of emergency management steps is (установление) and classification of all threats.

  4. The usual emergency threats are (пожар и наводнение).

  5. The other threat can be (поломка) of equipment and (нарушение) of security.

  6. Evacuation plan makes the staff know the alarms and how (справляться с бедствием).

  7. Training implies (репетиция) of emergency procedures.

  8. The recovery period starts after (последствия) of the incident are known.


Exercise 4. Translate into English:

  1. К чрезвычайным ситуациям можно отнести такие обстоятельства, как крушение самолета, взрыв, распространение токсических веществ, шторм, пожар и т. д.

  2. Управление чрезвычайными ситуациями включает определение бедствия, ликвидацию его последствий, подготовку персонала.

  3. Готовность к чрезвычайной ситуации заключается в способности предпринять необходимые действия, чтобы свести к минимуму воздействие бедствия.

  4. Чтобы уменьшить степень риска, нужно определить характер чрезвычайной ситуации для каждого отдельного предприятия или отрасли.

  5. При планировании ответа на чрезвычайную ситуацию необходимо решить ряд ключевых вопросов.

  6. Хорошее управление чрезвычайными ситуациями дает возможность уменьшить угрозу, последствия и восстановиться после происшествия.

  7. Принимая основные принципы планирования, можно свести к минимуму воздействия чрезвычайной ситуации.


Speaking:

Exercise 5. Divide the text into the meaningful parts and give the title to each of the, taking into account:

  1. circumstances which can entail emergency;

  2. the parts of emergency management;

  3. the steps of emergency plan;

  4. key questions of emergency management;

  5. the recovery period of hazard.



Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

  1. What circumstances may cause an emergency situation?

  2. How is it possible to mitigate threats of emergency?

  3. What are internal and external threats?

  4. What are the stages of mitigating the hazard?

  5. What is it necessary to undertake under emergency conditions?

  6. Can be the recovery stage fully realized?


Checklist for Introduction:

  1. How is Infinitive in the function of adverbial modifier translated into Russian?

  2. How are the derivative words formed?

  3. What are the ways of mitigating the emergency consequences?

  4. What is emergency management?

Unit I
Grammar: Functions of Participle I.

Word-formation: suffixes -tion, -ing.

Speaking: Earthquake phenomenon.

Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:

to hit

ударять, поражать, настигать

magnitude

['mægnItju:d]

величина, размер (в землетрясении – сила, балл)

toll

[toul]

потеря, гибель

to flee (fled, fled)

бежать, спасаться бегством,

покидать



tremor

['tremə]

сотрясение, толчки

to devastate

['devəsteIt]

опустошать, разорять

authority

[כ:'θכrItI]

власть

to cancel

отменять, аннулировать

alert

тревога, сигнал тревоги

to be on the alert

(to put on alert) быть наготове



to warn

[wכ:n]

предупреждать

tide




прилив

aftermath

['α:ftəmæθ]

последствия


Vocabulary development: word building
Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words:

verb

noun

(abstract)



noun

(person)


adjective

participle

to devastate

devastation





devastating

to evacuate

evacuation

evacuee





to tide

tide



tidal




Text

Earthquake Hits Indonesia and Solomon Islands

Up to 2 000 people are feared dead on Indonesia’s Nias island of the west coast of Sumatra following at 8,7 magnitude earthquake that struck overnight. The shock came just before midnight destroying most of the buildings on the island. Death toll estimates vary widely from about 200 to ten times the original number.

Ten of thousands of people in Malaysia, Thailand, India and Sri Lanka had fled their houses in panic at the first tremors, fearing a repeat of last year’s devastating tsunami that killed over 200 000 people. People grabbed small bags of clothes as they fled their tents and homes. Many were crying and jumping into cars and onto motorbikes and pedicabs to head for higher ground, the associated press reported.

Governments from Malaysia to Sri Lanka ordered mass evacuations of their coastlines. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre in Hawaii said the quake had the potential to cause a “widely destructive tsunami” and authorities should take “immediate action” including evacuating coastline within 600 miles of the epicenter. However, before dawn, Thailand, Sri Lanka and India had cancelled the alerts.

UN Emergency Relief Coordinator told reporters a few hours after the quake that the UN offices throughout the area hit by last year’s tsunami were immediately put on alert and the government acted appropriately in warning the people. He said that although no tidal wave was reported this time, the shocks were a wakeup call for an effective early – warning system.

Another report said that a strong 6,7 magnitude earthquake in the Solomon Islands caused panic in the capital. The quake struck at a depth of just 1,8 kilometers below the sea and 73 kilometers southwest of Honiara, the capital of the Pacific island. They said there was violent shaking for nearly a minute when the quake struck at 7,39 pm. The houses were shaking, people were shouting, there was a bit of panic. Most of the families moved away from the coastline in the capital in the immediate aftermath of the quake.

The western Solomon Islands were hit by a massive 8,0 – magnitude earth-quake and tsunami not long ago, leaving more than 50 dead and thousands displaced.
Grammar study: Participle I
Present Participle Active кроме функции определения к существительному выполняет функцию обстоятельства образа действия и в этом случае соответствует русскому деепричастию (с окончаниями -я, -а).

Sample: The shock came just before midnight destroying most of the buildings on the island. – Толчок произошел как раз около полуночи, разрушая многие здания на острове.
Exercise 2. Translate Participle I in the sentences:


  1. Thousands of people fled their houses, fearing a repeat of last year’s devastating tsunami.

  2. The islands were hit by a massive earthquake and tsunami, leaving a number of dead and thousands displaced.

  3. The authorities should take “immediate action” including evacuating coastline.


Exercise 3. Define the form of the – ing words in the text:

building, fearing, devastating, crying, jumping, warning (twice), including, evacuating, shaking (twice), shouting, leaving.


Exercise 4. Insert the proper word into the sentence.

  1. Not long ago earthquake (большой силы) hit Indonesia.

  2. (Толчок) came before midnight and (разрушать) most of the buildings.

  3. People fled their houses at the first (толчки).

  4. Last year’s (опустошительный) tsunami killed over 200000 people.

  5. (Власти) ordered mass evacuations of their (береговая линия).

  6. The government (быть наготове) and acted (предупреждать) the people.

  7. There was (ужасный толчок) for nearly a minute when (землетрясение) struck.

  8. A massive earthquake and tsunami left thousands of people (без крова).


Exercise 5. Translate into English.

  1. В южных частях земного шара часто случаются землетрясения.

  2. Землетрясения могут быть большой силы и вызывать разрушения.

  3. Как правило, результатом землетрясения являются цунами.

  4. Последствиями этих природных явлений становятся разрушения и гибель людей.

  5. Люди боятся толчков и покидают дома в спешке.

  6. Очень важно быть наготове и предупредить людей об опасности.

  7. Своевременное предупреждение может спасти многие жизни.

  8. Последствия землетрясения или цунами могут быть разрушительными.

Exercise 6. Read the additional text and translate it without dictionary.
Text

Earthquake kills hundreds in Peru

A powerful 7,9 magnitude earthquake shook Peru’s coast near the capital, killing at least 387 people and injuring more 1050 others. 17 people were killed when a church collapsed in the city of Ica, south of Lima. Mayor of the town Pisco told that they did not have lights, water, communications. Most houses have fallen, churches, stores, hotels, everything is destroyed.

The government rushed police, soldiers, doctors and aid to Ica, but the traffic was paralyzed on the Pan American Highway by giant cracks in the pavement and fallen power lines. Hundreds of vehicles were backed up.

It was reported that dozens of people were seeking help in the hospitals even though they had suffered cracks and other structural damage. The walls of homes had fallen in and numerous people had been hurt by falling bricks and broken glass. Some homes had collapsed in the centre of Lima and many people had fled into the streets for safety.



The U.S. Geological Survey said that the earthquake hit at 6,40 p. m. about 145 kilometers southeast of Lima at a depth of about 40 kilometers. Four strong aftershocks ranging from magnitudes of 5,4 to 5,9 were felt afterward.
Speaking:

Exercise 7. Make an abstract of two texts, using key vocabulary and tell about:

    1. what is earthquake;

    2. what does it cause;

    3. what are the consequences for people and buildings;

    4. how is it possible to avoid great losses;

    5. how do the people behave during quake.


Checklist for Section I:

    1. How is Participle I translated into Russian in the function of adverbial modifier of manner?

    2. What are the abstract nouns?

    3. What are the earthquake consequences?

    4. What can the earthquake result in?


Unit II
Grammar: Passive Voice.

Word-formation: suffixes -ity, -ance.

Speaking: Forecasts.
Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:

prediction

предсказание, прогноз

precursor

[prI:'kə:sə]

предшественник, предвестник

accurate

['ækjurIt]

точный, правильный

forecast

предсказание, прогноз

prank

[præŋk]

выходка, проделка, шутка

clairvoyant

[klεə'vכIənt]

ясновидящий

incredulous

[In'kredjuləs]

недоверчивый, скептический

imminent

['ImInənt]

близкий, надвигающийся, грозящий, нависший

upheaval

[Λp'hI:vəl]

сдвиг (изменение, нарушение)

disturbance

[dIs'tə:bəns]

нарушение, волнение

core

[kכ:]

ядро, центр

fluctuation

[¸flΛktju'eI∫n]

колебание

procedure

[prə'sI:dʒə]

методика


Vocabulary development: word building

Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words, using a dictionary:

verb

noun

(abstract)



noun

(person)


adjective

to prank

prank



prankish



procedure



procedural

to predict

prediction

predictor

predictive





precursor

precursory



accuracy



accurate

to forecast

forecast





to fluctuate

fluctuation







incredibility

incredulity





incredible

incredulous





imminence



imminent

to upheaval

upheaval





to disturb

disturbance

disturber





clairvoyance

clairvoyant

clairvoyant

Text

The prediction of hurricanes and earthquakes

On September 9, 1999 a rather puzzling fax came in to the Turkish Embassy in Moscow, signed by Tula State University Professor Oleg Martynov: “Since August 3 of this year, precursors of a powerful earthquake have been observed in an area with the following geographic coordinates: 40 N 28 to 30 E. Should your government get Turkish meteorologists and seismologist to contact us, we will be able to provide an accurate forecast about the time and the coordinates”.

Embassy officials decided that it was some kind of prank, but called the Russian Academy of Sciences. “Pay no attention – these are charlatans”, the ambassador was assured. A week later Turkey was shaken by a natural catastrophe. Turkish journalists rushed to Tula to interview the clairvoyant professor. Martynov asked them to draw their government’s attention to the fact that more earthquakes should be expected in a month’s time. On November 12, 1999, Turkey unfortunately saw that the scientist’s second forecast was also accurate.

The pattern was repeated with Greece. A storm warning to the incredulous government arrived on September 2, while five days later the country was shaken. Prof. Martynov has more than a dozen officially confirmed forecasts: Azerbajan, Bulgaria, France, Great Britain, Italy, etc.

Prof. Martynov receives signals about imminent meteorological and seismic upheavals from the invented instrument, a steel drum packed with sensitive antennas. The instrument is called a broad-band gradientometer, which records disturbances in the gravitational equilibrium between the earth’s core and its atmosphere every second. Sensors show fluctuations on the video display terminal, and with some decoding procedure, the professor says, it is quite easy to determine the time and place of an upcoming hurricane, typhoon, oк some other devastating natural phenomenon.

In the course of his studies, Martynov came to conclusion, that the earth’s gravitational balance is periodically disturbed, but our planet recovers the equilibrium. However, cataclysms continue to occur.


Grammar study: learn grammar peculiarities of the text

1. Страдательный залог (Passive Voice) – это такая категория глагола, которая показывает, что лицо или предмет, являющийся подлежащим, не сам выполняет действие, а подвергается действию со стороны другого лица или предмета. Cтрадательный залог образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени и причастия прошедшего времени смыслового глагола. Формы страдательного залога отсутствуют во Future Continuous и в группе Perfect Continuous.



Sample: The ambassador was assured that the forecast about the time and the coordinates of an earthquake was not true. – Посла заверили, что прогноз о времени и месте землетрясения не соответствовал действительности.

2. Причастие прошедшего времени, так же как и причастие настоящего времени, часто используется в качестве определения. В функции определения причастие второе переводится на русский язык причастием страдательного залога совершенного и несовершенного вида с суффиксами и окончаниями -(н)ный, -тый, -емый.



Sample: A fax signed by Tula State University professor concerned the prediction of earthquakes. – Факс, подписанный профессором Тульского государственного университета, касался прогноза землетрясений.
Exercise 2a. Translate the sentences and define the tense of the verbs in Passive Voice:

  1. Several years ago a powerful earthquake have been observed in Turkey.

  2. Some time later Turkey was shaken by a natural catastrophe.

  3. The procedure of the forecast was repeated in another country.

  4. The forecast appeared to be accurate and in several days the country was shaken.

  5. The instrument for predicting earthquakes is called a gradientometer.

  6. The reason of earthquakes is that the earth’s gravitational balance is periodically disturbed.


Exercise 2b. Translate the sentences with Past Participle in the function of an attribute:

  1. Professor from Tula has more than a dozen officially confirmed forecasts.

  2. The scientist receives signals from the invented instrument, a steel drum packed with sensitive antennas.

  3. The observed fluctuations were rather strong.

  4. The developed procedure helps to predict seismic upheavals quite accurate.

  5. The repeated phenomena proved the correctness of the method.


Exercise 3. Insert the proper word into the sentence:

  1. (Предвестник) of a powerful earthquake has been observed in an area of Turkey.

  2. (Точный прогноз) was accepted as a kind of (шутка).

  3. By the earthquake the earth (сотрясается) with great power.

  4. (К сожалению), the scientist was not believed.

  5. The device records (нарушение) in the gravitational equilibrium.

  6. The reason of (опустошительный) phenomena is that the earth’s gravitational balance periodically (нарушается).

  7. Gradually, the planet (восстанавливать) the equilibrium.

  8. (Ясновидящий) professor (предупредил), that (следует ожидать) the earthquake in the nearest future.


Exercise 4. Translate into English:

  1. Точный прогноз надвигающегося метеорологического изменения очень важен.

  2. Методика декодирования записей прибора дает возможность определить время и место нарушения природного равновесия.

  3. Изобретенный прибор довольно точно определяет приближающийся ураган или землетрясение.

  4. Хотя современная наука может прогнозировать ураганы и землетрясения, катаклизмы случаются.

  5. Ясновидящий профессор предупредил, что следует ожидать еще бóльших землетрясений.


Exercise 5. Read the additional text and translate it without dictionary with the help of the following words:


trash

мусор, отходы

to wreak

[rI:k]

дать волю (чувствам), бушевать, разрушать

vulnerable

['vΛlnərəbl]

уязвимый, незащищенный

evil

['I:vl]

злой, зловещий

outburst

['autbə:st]

взрыв, вспышка

sinister

злой, зловещий

twister

ураган, смерч

to tear (tore, torn)

[tεə; tכ:; tכ:n]

рваться, нестись, мчаться



Trailer Park Trash Grows

The National Weather Service Storm Predictor Centre, USA, reported that a total of 35 tornadoes struck Midwestern states of Missouri, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee, killing at least two people and wreaking more than one vulnerable trailer park. This was the third evil outburst by Mother Nature. Then a sinister twister hit Indiana, killing 23 people, while 9 tornadoes tore through Iowa less than two weeks later.


Speaking:

Exercise 6. Make an abstract of two texts, using key vocabulary and tell about:

a) what is the reason of earthquakes;

b) what areas are mainly hit by earthquakes;

c) how often do earthquakes and hurricanes strike the earth;

d) is it possible to predict these natural phenomena;

e) what are the bad consequences of hurricanes, typhoons and earthquakes.


Checklist for Section II

  1. What is Passive Voice and how is it formed?

  2. What part of speech is formed by the suffixes -or, -er?

  3. Is it possible to predict the hurricanes and earthquakes?

  4. Describe the device for forecasting these hazards?



Unit III
Grammar: Participle I as an attribute.

Word-formation: Person nouns.

Speaking: Warning the storms.
Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:

onslaught

['כnslכ:t]

атака, нападение

fierce

[fIəs]

сильный, свирепый, неистовый

commonplace

банальность

average

['ævərIdʒ]

средний

frequent

[frI:kwənt]

частый

to seek

стремиться к чему-либо

brunt

[brΛnt]

главный удар

to bear the brunt

принять на себя главный удар


Vocabulary development: word building

Exercise 1. Translate the original and derivative words, using a dictionary:

verb

noun

(abstract)



noun

(person)


adjective

to announce


announcement

announcer






frequency

frequenter

frequent



science

scientist

scientific


Text

Scientists warn: more bad storms on the way

Not long ago our planet has been hit by two powerful tropical storms – Katrina and Nabi. The first devastated New Orleans on August 29, 2005, while the second struck Japan and Russia’s Far East. Next in line was Malaysia. A meteorologist with the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific announced that the country was going to be swept by a powerful typhoon with devastation similar to that of the United States and Japan. The UN expert links this turn to global changes in the earth’s climate. Unlike these two countries, Malaysia is unprepared for the onslaught of tropical storms.

There was a lively discussion about the impact of global warming on natural catastrophes. One of the issues of “Nature” published an article titled “After the Flood” with the reading: “Academic experts say they were all too aware of the devastation that would claim New Orleans and its surroundings in the wake of a fierce hurricane”. Extreme weather phenomena are becoming commonplace. Scientists believe that the synoptic catastrophes are due to global warming.

The world experienced a series of record – breaking weather events in early 2007, from flooding in Asia to heatwaves in Europe and snowfall in South Africa. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) said global land surface temperatures in January and April were likely the warmest since records began in 1880, at more than 1 degree Celsius higher than average for those months.

Most scientists believe extreme weather events will be more frequent as heat – trapping carbon dioxide emissions cause global temperatures to rise. The WMO is working to set up an early warning system for extreme weather events. The agency is also seeking to improve monitoring of the impacts of climate change, particularly in poorer countries which are expected to bear the brunt of floods, droughts and storms.
Grammar study: Participle I
Present Participle часто употребляется в функции определения и переводится на русский язык причастием действительного залога с суффиксами -ущ, -ющ, -ащ, -ящ, -вш.

Sample: devastating typhoon – опустошающий тайфун;

increasing hurricane – усиливающийся ураган.
Exercise 2. Define the -ing forms of the words in the text:

warming, reading, surrounding, becoming, breaking, flooding, trapping, working, warning, seeking, monitoring.


Exercise 3. Insert the proper word into the sentence.

  1. Not long ago a lot of countries (поражать) by two powerful tropical storms.

  2. These typhoons were extremely (опустошительный).

  3. Extreme weather phenomena are becoming (банальность).

  4. Carbon dioxide (выбросы) cause the global temperatures to rise.

  5. The poorer countries are expected (принять удар) of floods, (засуха), and storms.

  6. The scientists (стремиться) to set up an (система раннего оповещения) for extreme weather events.

  7. (Сильный ураган) (опустошил) New Orleans.

  8. The weather catastrophes (происходят из-за) global (потепление).


Exercise 4. Translate into English:

  1. Глобальное потепление является причиной природных катастроф.

  2. Результатом ураганов и тайфунов становятся разрушения и опустошения.

  3. Многие страны не готовы к атакам штормов и наводнений.

  4. Повышение температуры и наводнения – взаимосвязанные события.

  5. К сожалению, ураганы, наводнения, засуха часто случаются.

  6. Люди стремятся облегчить последствия природных катастроф.


Exercise 5. Read the additional text and translate it without dictionary:
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