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Дэвид Харви Краткая история неолиберализма - страница №9/9

БЛАГОДАРНОСТИ ОБЛАДАТЕЛЯМ АВТОРСКОГО ПРАВА НА РИСУНКИ

Рис. 4.1, 4.3, 4.4 и 4.5 воспроизводятся с любезного разрешения Guilford Press. Они взяты из книги P. Dicken, Global Shift: Reshaping the Global Economic Map in the 21st Century. 4th ed., 2003.

Рис. 1.3 воспроизводятся с любезного разрешения MIT Press Journals. Он взят из статьи Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez, "Income Inequality in the United States, 1913 1988". The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118:1 (February, 2003).

Рис. 5.2 воспроизводятся с любезного разрешения J. Perloff из работы Wu X and Perloff J., China's Income Distribution over Time: Reasons for Rising Inequality. CUDARE Working Papers 977.

Рис. 1.6 воспроизводятся с любезного разрешения Verso Press из книги R. Pollin, Contours of Descent, 2003.

Рис. 1.4, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9 и 7.1 воспроизводятся с любезного разрешения Gerald Dumenil. Они также доступны на сайте http://www.cebremap.ens.fr/levy

Рис. 1.2, 1.5 и 6.2 воспроизводятся с любезного разрешения издателя книги Capital Resurgent: Roots of the Neoliberal Revolution by Gerald Dumenil and Dominique Levy. Перевод Derek Jeffers, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Copyright С 2004 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College.

Рис. 4.2. воспроизводятся с любезного разрешения Blackwell Publishing из книги S. Corbridge, Debt and Development, 1993.





1 George S., "A Short History of Neoliberalism: Twenty Years of Elite Economics and Emerging Opportunities for Structural Change" в книге W. Bello, N. Bullard, and К. Malhotra (eds), Global Finance: New Thinking on Regulating Capital Markets (London: Zed Books, 2000), 27 35; G. Dumenil, D. Levy, Capital Resurgent: Roots of the Neoliberal Revolution, перевод D. Jeffers (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2004); J. Peck, "Geography and Public Policy: Constructions of Neoliberalism", Progress in Human Geography, 28/3 (2004), 392 405; J. Peck and A. Tickell, "Neoliberalizing Space", Antipode, 34/2 (2002), 380 404; P. Treanor, "Neoliberalizm: Origins, Theory, Definition", http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Paul.Treanor/neo liberalism.html.


2 Treanor P., "Neoliberalism".


3 Bush G.W., "President Addresses the Nation in Prime Time Press Conference", 13 April 2004; http://www.whitehouse.gov/ news/releases/2004/0420040413 20.html.


4 Мэтью Арнольд цитируется в книге R. Williams, Culture and Society, 1780 1850 (London: Chatto & Windus, 1958), 118.


5 Juhasz A, "Ambitions of Empire: The Bush Administration Economic Plan for Iraq (and Beyond)", Left Turn Magazine, 12 (Feb./March, 2004), 27 32.


6 Klein N., "Of Course the White House Fears Free Elections in Iraq", Guardian, 24 January 2004, 18.


7 Crampton Т., "Iraqi Official Urges Caution on Imposing Free Market", New York Times, 14 October 2003, С 5.


8 Juhasz A, "Ambitions of Empire", 29.


9 Bush G.W., "Securing Freedom's Triumph", New York Times, 11 September 2002, A33. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America можно также найти на сайте: www.whitehouse. gov/nsc/nss.


10 Fourcide Gourinchas M. and S. Babb, "The Rebirth of the Liberal Creed: Paths to Neoliberalism in Four Countries", American Journal of Sociology, 108 (2002), 542 9; J. Valdez, Pinochet's Economists: The Chicago School in Chile (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995); R. Luders, "The Success and Failure of the State Owned Enterprise Divestitures in a Developing Country: The Case of Chile", Journal of World Business (1993), 98 121.


11 Dahl R. and С Lindblom, Politics, Economy and Welfare: Planning and Politico Economic System Resolved into Basic Social Pmoesses (New York: Harper, 1953).


12 Krasner S. (ed.) International Regimes (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983); M. Bfyth, Gnat TransjbrmatioHs: Economic Ideas and Institutional Change in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).


13 Armstrong P., A. Glynn, andj. Harrison, Capitalism Since World War II: The Marketing and Breaking of the Long Boom (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991).


14 Программа развития ООН, Human Development Report, 1999 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 3.


15 См, веб сайт http://www.mohtpelerin.org/aboutmps.html.


16 Взвешенное рассуждение на этутему см.ъ книге H. J. Chang, Globalisation, Economic Development and the Role of the Statek (London: Zed Books, 2003). Как пишет Пек в "Geography and Public Policy", неолиберализм нередко включает сторонние элементы, так что сложно говорить о нем как о «чистой» теории.


17 История пути Тэтчер к неолиберализму описана в работе D. Yergin, J. Stanislaw, The Commanding Heights: The Battle Between Government and Market Place that is Remaking the Modern World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999).


18 Panitch L. and S. Gindin, "Finance and American Empire", in The Empire Reloaded: Socialist Register 2005 (London: Merlin Press, 2005), 46 81.


19 Henwood D., After the New Economy (New York: New Press, 2003), 208.


20 Alvarez L., "Britain Says U.S. Planned to Seize Oil in '73 Crisis", New York Times, 4 January 2004, A6. На тему соглашения с Саудовской Аравией об отправке нефтедолларов в США см. P. Gowan, The Global Gamble: Washington's Faustian Bid for World Dominance (London: Verso, 1999), 20.


21 missed


22 Panitch L.and s. gindin,"finance and American Empire".


23 Многие долговые кризисы 1980 х подроби» описаны в книге P. Gowan TheGlobalGamble.


24 Stiglitz J., Globalization and its Discontents (New York: Norton, 2002).


25 Dumenil G., D. Levy, "The Economics of U.S. Imperialism at the Turn of the 21st Century", Review of International Political Economy, 11/4 (2004), 657 76.


26 Chua A., World, on Fire: How Exposing Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability (New York: Doubleday, 2003) приводит немало примеров на эту тему.


27 Цитируется в книге D. Harvey, Condition of Postmodemity, 158.


28 Martin R., TheFinandaUzMion of Daily Life (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002).


29 Такое определение приводится в работах Дж. Дюменила и Д. Леви.


30 Chua A., World on Fire.


31 Программа развития ООН, Human Development Report, 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 2, и Программа развития ООН, Human Development Report, 1999,5.


32 W. Robinson, A Theory of Global Capitalism: Production, Class, and State in a Transnational World (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004) приводит прекрасный пример в подтверждение этой теории. К. Polanyi, The Great Transformation (Boston: Beacen«ress, 1954 edn.).


33 Ibid., J56. 25.


34 Ibid.


35 Ibid.


36 J.W. Bush, "Securing Freedom's Triumph", см. также F. Zakaria, TheFuture of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad (New York: Norton, 2003).


37 missed


38 Gramsci A., Selections from the Prison Notebooks, перев. Q. Hoare and G. Nowell Smith (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1971), 321 43.


39 Rapley J., Globalization and Inequality: Neoliberalism's Downward Spiral (Boulder, Col: Lynne Reiner, 2004), 55.


40 Gramsci A., Selections from the Prison Notebooks, 149.


41 Court J., Corporateering: How Corporate Power Steals your Personal Freedom (New York: J.P. Tarcher /Putnam, 2003), 33 38.


42 Blyth M., Great Transformations, 155. Информация, приведенная в предыдущем абзаце, взята из ch. 5 и б работы М. Blyth, а также работы Edsall Т., The New Politics of Inequality (New York: Norton, 1985), chs. 2 3.


43 Court J., Corporateering: How Corporate Power Steals your Personal Freedom (New York: J.P. Tarcher /Putnam, 2003), 34.


44 Tabb W., TheLong Default: New York City and the Urban Fiscal Crisis (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1982). Freeman J., Working Class New York: Life and Labor Since World War II (New York: New Press, 2001).


45 Zevin R., "New York City Crisis: Firstact in a New Age of Reaction" в работе Alcalay R., D. Mermelstein (eds.), TheFiscal Crisis of American Cities: Essays on the Political Economy of Urban America with Special Reference to New York (New York: Vintage Books, 1977) 11 29.


46 Tabb W., TheLong Default, 28. О Walter Wriston см. Т. Frank, One Market Under God: Extreme Capitalism, Market Populism and the End of Economic Democracy (New York: Doubleday, 2000), 53 6.


47 Freeman J., Working Class New York.


48 Koolhaas R., Delirious New York (New York: Monacelli Press, 1994); M. Greenberg, "The Limits of Branding: The World Trade Center, Fiscal Crisis and the Marketing of Recovery", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27 (2003), 386 416.


49 Tabb W., TheLong Default. О последующей «продаже» НьюЙорка см. Greenberg M., "The Limits of Branding". О предпринимательстве в крупных городах см. D. Harvey, "From Managerialism to Entrepreneurialism: The Transformation of Urban Governance in late Capitalism", in id., Spaces of Capital (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001), ch. 16.


50 Tabb W., TheLong Default, 15.


51 Edsall Т., The New Politics of Inequality, 128.


52 Court J., Corporateering: How Corporate Power Steals your Personal Freedom (New York, J. P. Tarcher /Putnam, 2003), 29 31 приводит все решения суда, принятые по этим вопросам в 1970 х.


53 Данные, приведенные Edsall Т., The New Politics of Inequality и M. Blyth, Great Transformation, вполне убедительны.


54 Edsall Т., The New Politics of Inequality, 235.


55 Ненависть к гомосексуалистам.– Примеч. пер.


56 Frank, T., What's the Matter with Kansas: How Conservatives Won the Hearts of America (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004).


57 Kirkpatrick D., "Club of the Most Powerful Gathers in Strictest Privacy, New York Times, 28 August 2004, A10.


58 Cm. Stiglitz J., TheRoaring Nineties (New York: Norton, 2003).


59 Yergin D., J. Stanislaw, Commanding Heights, 337; Stiglitz J., The Roaring Nineties, 108.


60 Edsal J Т., The New Politics of Inequality, 217.


61 И снова в основе рассуждения лежат работы Blyth M., Great Transformations и Edsall Т., The New Politics of Inequality,


62 Angell M., The Truth About the Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What To Do About It (New York: Random House, 2004).


63 Blyth M., Great Transformations и Frank Т., One Market Under God, особенно о роли Гилдера.


64 Edsall Т., The New Politics of Inequality, 107.


65 Hall S., Hard Road to Renewal: Thatcherism and the Crisis of the Left (New York: Norton, 1988).


66 Yergin D., J. Stanislaw, Commanding Heights, 92.


67 Benn Т., TheBenn Diaries, 1940 1990, ed. R. Winstone (London: Arrow, 1996).


68 Yergin D., J. Stanislaw, Commanding Heights, 104.


69 Brooks R., "Maggie's Man: We Were Wrong", Observer, 21 June 1992, 15. P. Hall, Governing the Economy: The Politics of State Intervention in Britain and France (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986); Fourcade Gourinchas M. and S. Babb, "The Rebirth of the Liberal Creed".


70 Hayter T. and Harvey D. (eds.), The Factory in the City (Brighton: Mansell, 1995).


71 Rees G. and J. Lambert, Cities in Crisis: The Political Economy of Urban Development in Post War Britain (London: Edward Arnold, 1985); Harloe M., С Pickyance, J. Urry (eds.), Place, Policy and Politics: Do Localities Matter? (London: Unwin Hyman, 1990); Boddy M., C. Fudge (eds.) Local Socialism? Labour Council and New Left Alternatives (London: Macmillan, 1984).


72 Провал попытки Тэтчер достичь некоторых макроэкономических целей описан в работе P. Hall, Governing the Economy.


73 Chang H.J., Globalisation. Jessop, В., "Liberalism, Neoliberalism, and Urban Governance: A State Theoretical Perspective", Antipode, 34/2 (2002), 452 72; Poulantzas N., State Power Socialism, перев. P.Camiller (London: Verso, 1978). Clarke S. (ed.) TheState Debate (London: Macmillan, 1991). Haggard S. and R. Kaufman (eds.), The Politics of Economic Adjustment: International Constraints, Distributive Conflicts and the State (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992); Nozick M., Anarchy, State and Utopia (New York: Basic Books, 1977).


74 Например, при вливании денег в частный сектор снижаются налоговые отчисления, стимулируя тем самым инвестиции и на этой основе – увеличивая доходы потребителей.– Примеч. пер.)


75 Stiglitz J., TheRoaringNineties получил Нобелевскую премию за исследования в области влияния асимметричной информации на рыночное поведение и его последствия.


76 Evans P., Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995); R. Wade, Governing the Market (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992); Woo Cummings M. (ed.), The Developmental State (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999).


77 Henderson J., "Uneven Crises: Institutional Foundation of East Asian Turmoil", Economy and Society, 28/3 (1999), 327 68.


78 Stiglitz J., The Roaring Nineties, 227; P. Hall, Governing the Economy; Fourcade Gourinchas M. and S. Babb, "The Rebirth of the Liberal Creed".


79 Vasquez I., "The Brady Plan and Market Based Solutions to Debt Crises", The CatoJournal, 16/2 (online).


80 Piore M., and C. Sable, TheSecond Industrial Divide: Possibilities for Prosperity (New York: Basic Books, 1986).


81 Cm. Harvey D., Condition of Postmodernity.


82 Navarro V. (ed.), ThePolitical Economy of Social Inequalities: Consequences for Health and the Quality of Life (Amityville, NY: Baywood, 2002).


83 McCarney, P., and R. Stren, Governance on the Ground: Innovations and Discontinuities in the Cities of the Developing World (Princeton; Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2003); A. Dixit, Lawlessness and Economics; Alternative Modes of Governance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004).


84 Miliband R., TheState in Capitalist Society (New York: Basic Books, 1969).


85 Rosenblum N. and R. Post (eds.), Civil Society and Government (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001); Chambers S. and W. Kymlichka (eds.), AlternativeConceptions of Civil Society (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).


86 Ohmae K., TheEnd of the Nation State: The Rise of the Regional Economies (New York: Touchstone Press, 1996).


87 Court J., Corporateering.


88 Healy D., Let Them Eat Prozac: The Unhealthy Relationship Between the Pharmaceutical Industry and Depression (New York: New York University Press, 2004).


89 Bello W, N. Bullard, K. Malhotra (eds.), GlobalFinance: New Thinking on Regulating Speculative Markets (London: Zed Books, 2000).


90 Schwab K. and C. Smadja цитируется по D. Harvey, Spaces of Hope (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000), 70.


91 Wang H., China's New Order: Society, Politics andEconomy in Transition (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 44.


92 Mann J., TheRise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet (New York: Viking Books, 2004); S. Drury, Leo Strauss and the American Right (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999).


93 Hofstadter R., The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996 edn.).


94 Harvey D., TheNew Imperialism, ch. 4.


95 Chang H. J., Globalisation, 31.


96 Kaldor M., New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Em (Cambridge: Polity, 1999), 130.


97 Frank Т., What's the Matter with Kansas.


98 Lee Kuan Yew, From Third World to First: The Singapore Story 1965 2000 (New York: HarperCollins, 2000).


99 Peck J., "Geography and Public Policy".


100 Всемирный банк, World Development Report 2005: A Better Investment Climate for Everyone (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).


101 Gowan, TheGlobal Gamble.


102 Dumenil G., D. Levy, "The Economics of US Imperialism".


103 Stiglitz J., TheRoaring Nineties.


104 Brenner R., TheBoom and the Bubble: The US in the World Economy (London: Verso, 2002).


105 Corbridge S., Debt and Development (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993).


106 Stiglitz J., Globalization and its Discontents, 57.


107 Chua A., World on Fire.


108 Henderson J., "Uneven Crises"; Stiglitz J., Globalization and its Discontent, 99, соглашается с этой точкой зрения: "Либерализация капитала стала основной причиной кризиса".


109 Stiglitz J., Globalization and its Discontent, 129 30.


110 Ibid.


111 Программа, в соответствии с которой иностранный капитал открывал в стране предприятия, получавшие право импортировать материалы и оборудование в беспошлинном режиме для производства или сборки, чтобы готовый продукт снова вывезти для реализации за пределы Мексики.– Примеч. пер.


112 Vasquez, "The Brady Plan".


113 MacLeod D., Downsizing the State: Privatization and the Limits of Neoliberal Reform in Mexico (University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 2004).


114 Lomnitz Adler C, "The Depreciation of Life During Mexico City's Transition into "'The Crisis'" в работе Schneider J. and I. Susser (eds.), Wounded Cities (New York: Berg, 2004), 47 70.


115 Davis D., Urban Leviathan: Mexico City in the Twentieth Century ' (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994).


116 MacLeod D., Downsizing the State, 90 94.


117 Ibid., 71.


118 Nash J., Mayan Visions: The Quest for Autonomy in an Age of Globalization (New York: Routledge, 2001).


119 Forero J., "As China Gallops, Mexico Sees Factory Jobs Slip Away", New York Times, 3 sept. 2003, A2. "Мексика, долгое время остававшаяся лидером в области низкобюджетного производства и дешевого экспорта в США… стремительно уступает позиции Китаю с его сотнями миллионов дешевых рабочих… По данным мексиканского правительства, с 2001 года было закрыто 3700 мексиканских предприятий та^мйа, что привело к потере 218 000 рабочих мест". Последние данные показывают, что с ростом эффективности и гибкости производства на предприятиях maquila постепенно растет и количество рабочих мест; близость к США позволяет гарантировать стабильный поток мексиканских товаров, благодаря чему американские розничные торговцы могут минимизировать размер запасов». См. Е. Malkin, 'A Boom Along the Border", New York Times, 26 August 2004, Wl and W7.


120 MacLeod D., Downsizing the State, 99 100; Chua, World on Fire, 61 63 кратко описывает деятельность Карлоса Слима.


121 Sharapura S., "What Happened in Argentina?", Chicago Business Online. 28 May 2002, http://www.chibus.com/news/2002/ 05/28/Worldview.


122 Petras J. and H. Veltmeyer, System in Crisis: The Dynamics of Free Market Capitalism (London: Zed Books, 2003), 87 10.


123 Soederberg S., Contesting Global Governance in the South: Debt, Class, and the New Common Sense in Managing Globalisation (London: Pluto Press, 2005).


124 J. Salerno, "Confiscatory Deflation: The Case of Argentina", Ludwig von Mises Institute, http://www.mises.org?fullstory. aspx?control/890.


125 Petras J. and H. Veltmeyer, System in Crisis, 86.


126 Chibber V., Locked in Place: State Building and Late Industrialization in India (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003).


127 Ibid., 245.


128 Wade R. and F. Veneroso, "The Asian Crisis: The High Debt Model versus the Wall Street – Treasury – IMF Complex", New Left Review, 228 (1998), 3 23.


129 Woo Cummings M., South Korean Anti Americanism, Japan Policy Research Institute Working Paper 93 (July 2003).


130 Ibid., 5.


131 Stiglitz J., Globalization and its Discontents.


132 Ibid., 130.


133 Woo Cummings M., South Korean Anti Americanism, 4.


134 Stiglitz J., Globalization and its Discontents, 130, 206 7.


135 Blyth, Great Transformations, 205.


136 Ibid., 238 42.


137 Ibid., 229 30.


138 Ibid., 231 3.


139 Bond P., Elite Transition: From Apartheid to Neoliberalism in South Africa (London: Pluto Press, 2000). Тот же автор, Against Global Apartheid: South Africa Meets the World Bank, the IMF and International Finance (London: Zed Books, 2003).


140 Всемирный банк, World Development Report 2005.


141 Stiglitz J., Globalization and its Discontents часто возвращается к этому вопросу.


142 Mittelman J., The Globalization Syndrome: Transformation and Resistance ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 90 106.


143 Lardy N. China's Unfinished Economic Revolution (Washington, DC Brookings Institution, 1998);Li S. M. andW. S. Tang, Chinas Regions, Polity and Economy (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2000).


144 Я в большей степени склоняюсь ко второму объяснению, хотя и не так категорично, как Харт Ландсберг М. и П. Баркетг, чьим работам я доверяю. См. Hart Landsberg M. and P. Burkett, China and Socialism: Market Reforms and Class Struggle (New York, 2004; Monthly Review, 56/3).


145 Cao L., "Chinese Privatization: Between Plan and Market", L,aw and Contemporary Problems, 63/13 (2000), 13 62.


146 Это точку зрения отстаивает Y. Huang, "Is China Playing by the Rules?", Congressional – Executive Commission on China, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/ hearings/092403/huang.php.


147 Wang, China's New Order, 66.


148 Hale D. and Hale L., "China Takes Off, Foreign Affairs, 82/6 (2003), 36 53.


149 KahnJ. andj. Yardlcy, "Amid China's Boom, No Helping Hand for Young Qingming", New York Times, 1 August 2004, Al and A6.


150 YardleyJ., "In a Tidal Wave, China's Masses Pour from Farm to City", New York Ttmes, 12 September, 2004, Week in Review, 6.


151 KahnJ. andj. Yardley, "Amid China's Boom".


152 Stevenson C, Reforming State Owned Enterprises: Past Lessons for Current Problems (Washington, DC: George Washington University), http://www.gwu.edu/ ylowrey/stevensonc.html.


153 Hart Landsberg M. and P. Burkett, China and Socialism, 35. Li S. M. and W.S. Tang, China's Regions.


154 Hart Landsberg M. and P. Burkett, China and Socialism, 38.


155 См. там же, » также в Global Policy Forum, Newsletterf 'Chma'& Privatization vhttp:www;gl6balpblicy.6rg.socecon/ffd/fdi/ 200^/1112chiriaprivatizati6n.'


156 Li S. M. and W. S. Tang, China's Regions, ch. 6.


157 Ibid!, 82. :


158 Chiria Labor Watch, "Maihland China Jobless Situation Grim, Minister Says", http://www.chinalaborvvatch.org/eh/web/ artide.php?aiticleid=50043 , 18 November 2004.


159 Kahh J:, "China Gambles on Big Projects for its Stability", New York Times, 13 January 2003, Al and A8; K. Bradsher, "Chinese Builders Buy Abroad", New York Times, Z Dec. 2003, Wl and W 7; Fishman Т., 'The Chinese Century7 ;' New York Times Magazine, 4July 2004, 24 51.


160 French H., "New Boomtowns Change Path of China's Growth", New York Times, 28 July2004, Al and A8.


161 Bradsher K., "Big China Trade Brings Port War", International Herald Tribune, 27 January 2003, 12.


162 Sharma S., "Stability Amidst Turmoil: China and the Asian Financial Crisis", Asia Quarterly (Winter 2000), www.fas.harvard.edu/~asiactr/haq/2000001/O001aOO6.htm.


163 Hale and Hale, "China Takes Off", 40.


164 Liu H., "China: Banking on Bank Reform", Asia Times Online, www.atimes.com, 1 June 2002.


165 Bradsher K., "A Heated Chinese Economy Piles up Debt", New York Times, 4 September 2003, A14 and C4; K. Bradsher, "China Announces New Bailout on Big Banks", NewYork Times, 7 January 2004, Cl.


166 Liu H., "China: Banking on Bank Reform".


167 Burckley C, "Let a Thousand Ideas Flower: China Is a New Hotbed of Research", New York Times, 13 September 1004, Cl and C4.


168 Warner J., "Why the World's Economy is Stuck on a Fast Boat to China", The Independent, 24 January, 2004, 23.


169 Burckley C, "Rapid Growth of China's Huawei Has Its High Tech Rivals on Guard", New York Times, 6 October 2003, Cl and C3.


170 Bradsher K., "GM To Speed Up Expansion in China: An Annual Goal of 1.3 Million Cars", New York Times, 8 June 2004, Wl and W7. . . .


171 Zhang Z., Whither China? Intellectual Politics in Contemporary China (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001).


172 Bradsher K., "China's Factories Aim to Fill Garages Around the World", New York Times, 2 November 2003, International Section, 8. Тот же автор, "GM To Speed,Up Expansion in China". Тот же автор, "Is China The, Next Bubble?",.New York Times, 18 January 2004, Section?, land 4. :, , :


173 Bradsher K., "Chinese Provinces Form Regional Power Bloc", New York Times, 2 June 2004, Wl и W7.


174 Yasheng H and T. Khanna, "Can India Overtake China?", China New Magazine, 3 April 2004; www.chinanowmag,eom/busines*/bu«ne*s.htHn. . –


175 Dicken P., Global Shift: Rnkaping the global economic map in the 21" century, 4th ed (New York: Guilford Press, 2003), 332.


176 Hout T,., and j. Lebretton, "The Real Contest Between America and China", The №U Street journal on Line, \ 6 September 2003. Интересно, что именно эту точку зрения отстаивает 1С. Маркс в отношении разницы в применении технологии в США и Великобритании в ХГХ веке– С«– Capital (New York: International Publishers, 1967), i. 371 2.


177 Cm. Hart Landsberg M. and P. Burkett, China and Socialism, 94 95; K. Brooke, "Korea Feeling Pressure as China Grows", New York Times, 8 January 2003, Wl and W7.


178 Belson J., "Japanese Capital and Jobs Flowing to China", New York Times, 17 February 2004, Cl and C4.


179 Cm. Forero, "As China Gallops".


180 Bradsher K., "China Reports Economic Growth of 9.1% in 2003", New York Times, 20 February 2004, Wl and W7.


181 Bradsher K., "Taiwan Watches Its Economy Slip to China", New York Times, 13 December 2004, C7.


182 Arnold W, "ВНР Billiton Remains Upbeat Over Bet on China's Growth", New York Times, 8 June 2004, Wl and W7.


183 Landler M., "Hungary Eager and Uneasy Over New Status", New York Times, 5 March 2004, Wl and W7; K. Bradsher, "Chinese Automaker Plans Assembly Line in Malaysia", New York Times, 19 October 2004, Wl and W7.


184 Bradsher К., "China's Strange Hybrid Economy", New York Times, 21 December, 2003, C5.


185 Мнение Волкера приводится по работе P. Bond, "US and Global Economic Volatility: Theoretical, Empirical and Political Considerations", представленной на Empire Seminar, York University, в ноябре 2004.


186 Wang, China's New Order; T. Fishman, China Inc.: How the Rise of the Nest Superpower Challenges America and the World (New York: Scribner, 2005).


187 Bradsher K., "Now, a Great Leap Forward in Luxury", New York Times, 10 June 2004, Cl and C6.


188 Wu X. and J. Perloff, China'sIncome Distribution Over.Time: Reasons for Rising Inequality, CUDARE Working Papers 977 (Berkeley: University of California at Berkeley, 2004).


189 Wang, China's New Order.


190 Wei L., Regional Development in China (New York: Routledhe/ Curzon, 2000).


191 Shi L., "Current Conditions of China's Working Class" China Study Group, 3 November 2003, http://www.chinastudygroup. org/index.php?action=article&type.


192 China Labor Watch, "Mainland China Jobless Situation Grim".


193 Barboza D., "An Unknown Giant Flexes its Muscles", New York Times, 4 December 2004, Al and C3; S. Lohr, "IBM's Sale of PC Unit Is a Bridge Between Companies and Cultures", New York Times, 8 December 2004, Al and C4; S. Lohr, "IBM Sought China Partnership, Not Just a Sale", New York Times, 13 December 2004, Cl and C6.


194 Wang, China's New Order;]. Yardley, "Farmers Being Moved Aside by China's Real Estate Boom", New York Times, 8 December 2004, Al and A16.


195 Cartier C, "Zone Feber. The Arable Land Debate and Real Estate Speculation: China's Evolving Land Use Regime and its Geographical Contradictions", Journal of Contemporary China, 10 (2001), 455 69; Z. Zhang, Strangers in the City: Reconfigurations of Space, Power and Social Networks within China's Floating Population (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001).


196 Cartier C, "Symbolic City /Regions and Gendered Identity Formation in South China", Provincial China, 8/1 (2003), 60 77; Z. Zhang, "Mediating Time: The 'Rice Bowl of Youth' in Fin deSiecle Urban China", Public Culture, 12/1 (2000), 93 113.


197 Lee S.K., "Made in China: Labor as a Political Force?", вступительная речь, 2004 Mansfield Conference, University of Montana, Missoula, 18 20 April 2004.


198 Ibid.; J. Yardley, "Chinese Appeal to Beijing to Resolve Local Complaints", New York Times, 10 March 2004, A3.


199 Rosenthal E., "Workers Plight Brings New Militancy in China", New York Times, 10 March 2003, A8.


200 Cody E., "Workers in China Shed Passivity: Spate of Walkouts Shakes Factories", Washington Post, 27 November 2004, A01; A. Cheng, "Labor Unrest is Growing in China", International Herald Tribune Online, October 27, 2004; J. Yardley, "Farmers Being Moved Aside".


201 Lee, "Made In China".


202 Цитируется в работе Cody, "Workers in China Shed Passivity", см. также выпуски China Labor Bulletin.


203 Cody E., "Workers in China Shed Passivity".


204 Marx К., Theories of Surplus Value, pt. 2 (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1969), 200.


205 Gray J., False Dawn: The Illusions of Global Capitalism (London: Granta Press, 1998).


206 Bond, "US and Global Economic Volatility".


207 Наиболее исчерпывающие официальные заявления можно найти в документах Всемирной Комиссии по социальным последствиям глобализации (World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization) A Fair Globalization: Creating Opportunities for AU (Geneva, International Labour Office, 2004); Программа развития ООН, Human Development Report, 199;. Human Development Report,2003.


208 Weisbrot M., D. Baker, E. Kraev, J. Chen, "The Scorecard on Globalization 1980 2000: Its Consequences for Economic and Social Well Being" в работе Navarro V. and C. Muntaner, Political and Economic Determinants of Population Health and Well Being (Amityville, NY: Baywood, 2007), 91 114.


209 Monbiot G., "Punitive – and It Works", Guardian, 11 January 2005, публикация online.


210 Henwood, After the New Economy. G. Dumenil, D. Levy, Capital Resurgent, fig. 17.1.


211 Существует масса публикаций на тему глобализации. Свою точку зрения я высказал в работе Harvey, SpacesofHope.


212 Ibid., ch. 4.


213 Derthick M. and P. Quirk, The Politics of Deregulation (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1985); Megginson W, J. Netter, "From State to Market: A Survey of Empirical Studies of Privatization", Journal of Economic Literature (2001), online.


214 Dicken, Global Shift, ch. 13.


215 Названная по имени Карла Понци, который еще в 1921 году изобрел мошенническую финансовую пирамиду.– Примеч. пер.


216 Панич и Гиндин подчеркивают роль производных финансовых инструментов в процессе распределения рисков и выполнения лидерских функций "Finance and American Empire"; S. Soederberg, "The New International Financial Architecture: Imposed Leadership and 'Emerging Markets'", SocialistRegister (2002), 175 92.


217 Corbridge, Debt and Development; S. George, A Fate Worse Than Debt (New York: Grove Press, 1988).


218 Toussaint E., Your Money or Your Life: The Tyranny of Global Finance (London: Pluto Press, 2003); J. Stiglitz, Globalizationand its Discontents, 225; Wade R. and F. Veneroso, "The Asian Crisis", 21.


219 Farah J., "Brute Tyranny in China", WorldNetDaily.com, опубликовано 15 марта 2004; I. Peterson, "As Land Goes To Revitalization, There Go the Old Neighbors", New York Times, 30 January 2005, 29 and 32.


220 Holloway J. and E. Pelaez, Zapatista: Reinventing Revaluation (London: Pluto, 1998); J. Stedile, "Brazil's Landless Battalions" в книге Т. Mertes (ed.) A Movement of Movements (London: Verso, 2004).


221 Harvey D., "The Art of Rent: Globalization, Monopoly and the Commodifkation of Culture", Socialist Register (2002), 93 110.


222 Polanyi K., TheGreat Transformation, 73.


223 Bales K., Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000>; M. Wright, "The Dialectics of Still Life: Murder, Women and the Maquiladoras", Public Culture, 11 (1999), 453 74.


224 Ross A., Low Pay High Profile: The Global Push for Fair Labor (New York: The New Press, 2004), 124.


225 SeabrookJ., In the Cities of the South: Scenes from a Developing World (London: Verso, 1996), 103.


226 Sommer J., "A Dragon Let Loose on the Land: And Shanghai is at the Epicenter of China's Economic Boom", Japan Times, 26 October 1994, 3.


227 Lee C.K., Gender and the South China Miracle (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998); C. Cartier, Globalizing South China (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2001), особенно глава 6.


228 Глобальное влияние обсуждается в деталях в работе Navarro The Political Economy of Social Inequalities; Navarro V. and C. Muntaner, Political and Economic Determinants.


229 J. Kahn, "Violence Taints Religion's Solace for China's Poor", New York Times, 25 November 2004, Al and A24.


230 Frank, What's the Matter with Kansas.


231 Myers N., Ultimate Security: The Environmental Basis of Political Stability (New York: Norton, 1993). Тот же автор, The Primary Resource: Tropical Forests and Our Future/Updated for the 1990s (New York: Norton, 1993); Novacek M. (ed.), TheBiodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts (New York: American Museum of Natural History, 2001).


232 Научная программа изменения климата "Our Changing Planet: The US Climate Change Science Program for Fiscal Years 2004 and 2005", http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/Library/ ocp2004 5; M. Townsend and P. Harris, "Now the Pentagon Tells Bush: Climate Change Will Destroy Us", Observer, 22 February 2004, online.


233 Bradsher К., "China's Boom Adds to Global Wanning", New York Times, 22 October 2003, Al and A8; J. Yardley, "Rivers Run Black, and Chinese Die of Cancer", New York Times, 12 September 2004, Al and A17; D. Murphy, "Chinese Province: Stinking, Filthy, Rich", WaU Street Journal, 27 October 2004, B2H.


234 Petras J. and H. Veltmeyer, System in Crisis, ch. 6.


235 American Lands Alliance, "IMF Policies Lead to Global Deforestation", http://americanlands.org/imfreport.htm.


236 Rodrik D., The Global Governance of Trade: As If Development Really Mattered (New York: United Nations Development Program, 2001), 9.


237 Chandler D., From Kosovo to Kabul: Human Rights and International Intervention (London: Pluto Press, 2002), 89.


238 Ibid., 230.


239 Wallace Т., "NGO Dilemmas: Trojan Horses for Global Neoliberalism?", Socialist Register (2003), 202 19. Более общее исследование роли неправительственных организаций приведено в работе Edwards, M., Hulme, D., (eds.), NonGovernmental Organizations: Performance and Accountability (London: Earthscan, 1995).


240 Gill L., Teetering on the Rim (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); Cowan J., M. B. Dembour, R. Wilson (eds.), Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).


241 Bartholomew A., J. Breakspear, "Human Rights as Swords of Empire", Socialist Register (London: Merlin Press, 2003), 124 45.


242 Ibid., 126.


243 Chandler, From Kosovo to Kabul, 27, 218.


244 Ibid., 235.


245 Marx K., Capital, i 225.


246 Harvey D., "The Right to the City", в работе R. Scholar (ed.), Divided Cities: Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2003 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, готовится к изданию).


247 Harvey D., TheNew Imperialism, ch. 2.


248 Цитируется по работе Винсенто Наварро, содержащей глубокую критику Сен: "Development as Quality of Life: A Critique of Amartya Sen's Development as Freedom", в работе Navarro V. (ed.), The Political Economy of Social Inequalities, 13 26.


249 Polanyi K., TheGreat Transformation, 257.


250 Zakaria, TheFuture of Freedom; A. Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: Knopf, 1999).


251 Marx K., Capital, iii. 820.


252 Kaplan R., TheComing Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War (New York: Vintage, 2001).


253 Walton J., "Urban Protest and the Global Political Economy: The IMF Riots" в работе Smith M. and J. Feagin (eds.), The Capitalist City (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987), 354 86.


254 Jensen D., TheCulture of Make Believe (New York: Context Books, 2002). Zergan J., Future Primitive and Other Essays (Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia, 1994.


255 Kahn, "Violence Taints Religion's Solace for China's Poor".


256 Gills B. (ed.), Globalization and the Politics ofResistance (New York: Palgrave, 2001); Mertes T. (ed.), A Movement of Movements (London: Verso, 2004); Wignaraja P. (ed.), New Social Movements in the South: Empowering the People (London: Zed Books, 1993); Brecher J.( T. Costellb, B. Smith, Globalization from Below: The Power of Solidarity (Cambridge, Mass.: South End Press, 2000).


257 Stiglitz J., Globalhatum. and its Discontents и The Roaring Nineties; P. Krugman, The Great Unmoelling: Losing Our Wty in the Twentieth Century (New York: Norton, 2003); G. Soros; GeorgeSoros on Gtoba&atwn (New York Public Affairs, 2002); Ibid., The Bubble of American Supremacy: Correcting the Misuse of American Power (New York Public Affairs, 2003); Sachs J., "New Global Consensus on Helping the Poorest of the Poor", Global Policy Emm Newsletter, 18 April 2000. Сакс, например, говорит: «Я не верю в способность богатейших стран управлять миром, или в возможность принятия решений путем голосования на международном уровне, когда вес отдельного голоса определяется деньгами, как это происходит сейчас в МВФ или Всемирном банке. Я не верю и в правительство, сформированное сильнейшими бюрократиями, свободными'от обязательств, например МВФ, или в реальность управления на условиях, определенных богатейшими странами и навязанных безнадежно бедным».


258 Я цитирую только два: Программа развития ООН, Human Development Report 1999. Всемирная Комиссия по социальным последствиям глобализации (World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization), A Fair Globalization.


259 Held D., Global Govenant: The Social Democratic Alternative to the Washington Consensus (Cambridge: Polity, 2004). Я исследую некоторые аспекты применения этики космополитизма в D. Harvey, "Cosmopolitanism and the Banality of Geographical Evils", также см. Comaroff J. and J. Comaroff, Millennial Capitalism and the Culture of Neoliberalism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000), 271 310.


260 В отношении Волкера см. Bond, "US and Global Economic Volatility", Muhleisen M. and C. Towe (eds.), US Fiscal Policies and Priorities for hong Run Sustainability, Occasional Paper 227 (Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2004).


261 Harvey D., Condition of Postmodernity, 169.


262 Arendt H., Imperialism (New York: Harcourt Brace Janovich, (редакция 1968 года)); D. Harvey, The New Imperialism, 12 17.


263 King D., The Liberty of Strangers: Making the American Nation (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).


264 Arrighi G. and B. Silver, Chaos and Governance in the Modern World System (Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press, 1999). См. также послесловие к изданию в мягкой обложке D. Harvey, TheNew Imperialism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).


265 Конституционные нормы, гарантирующие права граждан и ограничивающие действия органов государственной власти.– Примеч. пер.


266 Цитируется по D. Harvey, Condition of Postmodernity, 168 70.


267 Amin S., "Social Movements at the Periphery" цитируется по Wignaraja P. (ed.), New SociaLMovements in the South, 76 100.


268 Bello W., Deglobalization: Ideas for a New World Economy (London: Zed Books, 2002); Bello W. N. Bullard, K. Malhotra (eds.), Global Finance; S. George…'Another World is Possible IF… (London: Verso, 2003); Fisher, W., Ponniah, T. (eds.), Another World is Possible: Popular Alternatives to Globalization at the Worlds Social Forum ((London: Zed Books, 2003); P. Bond, Talk Left Walk Right: South Africa's Frustrated Global Reforms (Scottsville, South Africa: University of Kwa Zulu – Natal Press, 2004); Mertes, A Movement of Movements; Gill, Teetering on the Rim; Brecher J., T. Costello, B. Smith, Globalization from Below.


269 Harvey D., Spaces of Hope, 248 52.


270 Рабочая группа Американской ассоциации политологов по вопросам неравенства и американской демократии (Task Force on Inequality and American Democracy), в работе American Democracy in an Age of Rising Inequality, рисует довольно мрачную картину.


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